Wednesday, May 31, 2023

Democrats Know Nothing About Our Oil & Gas Needs

Whenever I hear someone like Jamaal Bowman make such an asinine statement as "We must stop drilling for oil completely," I immediately ask what's his background? I usually hope he worked in engineering in the energy sector or maybe in power plants or maybe manufacturing. Of course, these days, when I hear something so dumb come out of the mouth of a Representative in Congress, I know it's a sure bet that that fool is talking about something that he or she knows absolutely knowing about.

According to Wikipedia, "Bowman briefly attended Potomac State Junior College before earning a Bachelor of Arts in Sports Management from the University of New Haven in 1999. He played college football for the New Haven Chargers. Bowman later earned a Master of Arts in Counseling from Mercy College and a Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership from Manhattanville College.

He is a member of the Lower Hudson Valley chapter of the Democratic Socialists of America. Bowman was inspired to run by Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez."

While that should tell you everything that you need to know about this guy, his stance on oil and gas, the whole idea that "We must stop drilling for oil 'completely' shows how utterly stupid he is when it comes to the role of oil and gas in our society.

The New York Democrat Congressman Jamaal Bowman said the United States must "stop drilling for fossil fuels completely" or Americans will continue to suffer from "severe weather events."  

"Number one, we need to stop drilling for fossil fuels completely," Bowman said. "But number two, we need an expedited way to get us to clean, renewable energy, or we will continue to have these severe weather events that we have been having for quite some time because of the warming of the planet."

Bowman's call to end oil and gas drilling in the United States comes as Americans recover from sky-high gas prices under Biden. The national average price for a gallon of gas last summer exceeded $5 for the first time ever. Here in California, we were paying more than $6 a gallon in some places. Some places were more than that. And now, forecasters are saying the average could again go to those same levels this summer. 

Biden's 2020 campaign was geared to cater to the crazies on the Left who want to end drilling for oil. Biden has shown the world that he is against American oil and gas production. He promised to "end fossil fuel" and allow "no more drilling." He then canceled the Keystone XL pipeline and put in place a moratorium on new gas leases within days of his taking office. 

Biden has also targeted the oil and gas industry through heavy-handed regulations. Earlier this month, for example, the Environmental Protection Agency unveiled new standards that force coal and gas power plants to slash their carbon emissions a whopping 90 percent between 2035 and 2040. The rule is expected to force many of those plants to shut down rather than spend millions of dollars to comply.

Please understand, Democrats are all for shutting down power plants while at the same time pushing Americans to use more electricity. How is that possible? Pixie dust! Democrats think electricity comes from pixie dust that falls from the sky. And they believe pixie dust should be free.

It doesn't matter if reductions in fossil-fuel power plants and oil and gas drilling would cripple America's energy and murder our economy. They have no idea and they really don't care to learn that about 80 percent of America's energy comes from fossil fuels. They think pixie dust will power their electric vehicles, electric stoves, and the electricity they use to power their cell phones. They probably think so because they have degrees in Sports Management, Counseling, Educational Leadership, Communism, and Gender Studies.

Wind and solar alternatives come with a lot of negative issues, including reliability, storage, maintenance, and project size and scope. Wind and solar are unreliable, can't be stored, the cost to maintain is astronomical, and the size and scope of what is needed to merely contribute to our needs is bigger than anyone expects. Of course, there is also the problem of mining for the minerals to create the batteries and the problem with the inability to recycle the waste used in both the wind and solar industries.

There is something else that Democrats either don't realize or simply don't care about. 

As I said in a post in March of 2012, oil is more than just fuel. Even if we miraculously found some way of making planes fly without fuel, we would still need oil. Even if we found a way to power every car, truck, train, boat, tractor, and piece of heavy equipment with gasoline and diesel fuels, we would still need oil. Even if we eliminated the use of oil to produce heat and create light for our homes, schools, and businesses, we would still need oil. Even if we found a way to replace oil entirely for our energy needs, we would still need oil. This fact of life has to do with our need to manufacture petroleum-based products. 

If we eliminated oil for all of our energy needs, we would still need 47% of every barrel of oil coming out of the ground to manufacture the thousands of oil-based products that we use every day.  And, since some of you have asked if I could reprint that information, here it is.

Oil Is More Than Just Gasoline

Just as important as our fuel needs, are our manufacturing needs - Over 6,000 products we use on a daily basis are manufactured from oil. Of every barrel of oil produced, 51% of a barrel of oil goes to something other than fuels. Out of one 42-gallon barrel of oil creates 19.4 gallons of gasoline. The rest, over half, is used to make things like:

Friends, the list above is only about 150 of the approximately 6000 items made from oil that we use every day. The list above is only a partial list of products made from petroleum. As we can see, it's not only about gasoline and cars. 

And ask yourself this, if 49% of all the oil we use is for fuel and the other 51% is for manufacturing products - how much oil would we still need if somehow every Democrat in America could wave their magic wand and eliminate the need for oil for our energy needs?

Currently, the United States consumes 19.6 million barrels per day. So even if every truck, car, big rig, train, jet plane, power plant, and home had an alternative fuel source to go to - we would still need at least 50% (or half) of the amount of the oil we are using today for our manufacturing needs.

Even if we never needed oil as an energy fuel source again, we would still consume over 10 million barrels a day just for our manufacturing processes. That means, oil as a base product is almost indispensable for us or others. If we want to continue making the products that we use on a daily basis, then we need to recognize the importance, the absolute need, of oil.

When Biden and Congressional Democrats talk about not drilling for oil because they want us to use other "energy" sources,  they completely ignore the manufacturing aspects of oil. And really, just how many manufacturing jobs are Democrats talking about putting at stake by not drilling right now?

How expensive will these oil-based products become if they can't be made easily or at all right here? How many companies are going to have to relocate their manufacturing facilities overseas to a country that is not playing into the Climate Change hoax? How many companies will want to take their manufacturing jobs somewhere else because oil is not readily available in the United States and may also be cheaper in other countries than it is here?

China and India don't care about Climate Change and are taking over as manufacturing giants while Democrats here are limiting what Americans can manufacture. Why won't Democrats stop attacking American businesses with regulations and senseless notions such as eliminating oil completely? Where do they think American workers will work when Democrats put manufacturing businesses out of business?

Ask yourself, how many Americans are going to suffer because of the arrogance and ignorance of fools like Biden and Democrats in Congress? Facts are facts, there are reasons to drill for oil that have nothing to do with cars and transportation -- and everything to do with manufacturing and the industrial might of the American economy.

A reader sent me the following information, she wrote, "If you think the Green New Deal is environmentally friendly, think again. Currently, the fossil fuel industry only uses about 1% of our landmass. If we do go to only using "green" energy, it will take at least 20% of our landmass to produce the minimum needs.
Wind turbine blades have to be replaced over time. Did you know that they’re not recyclable? Off to the landfill, they go! Keep in mind their size. Also, wind turbines kill over 300,000 birds each year. 

Solar panels crack and break and when they do, it’s too difficult and too expensive to recycle the materials found in the panels. So, like the blades, they are thrown into landfills. Solar panel fields have to be cleared, destroying large acreages of the environment. Solar panels must be cleaned in order for them to effectively collect sunlight. This means millions of gallons of water must be used.
Wind turbines and solar panels aren’t made from flowers. No, they are made from materials that must be mined, even from petroleum products. The mining process for rare earth materials is incredibly destructive to the environment in which they are collected. And because much of the materials are found in 3rd World Countries, the mining is not done in a safe manner for the land or the people.
Is it logical to think we can power our country’s industry, transportation, and homes with such inefficient energy sources? Is the fossil fuel industry perfect? No, but it has made remarkable strides and is the most efficient use. Let’s continue to strive to make cleaner and more efficient sources of energy -- but in good time without causing great disruption and even destruction of our economy and our lives. As there can be and should be a marrying of the two thoughts." 

This brings me to what Federal Energy Regulatory Commission member Mark Christie said during a May Senate hearing, "I'm afraid to say it, but I think the United States is heading towards a catastrophic situation. The problem is not the addition of wind and solar, it's the subtraction of dispatchable resources like coal and gas." 

Frankly, experts on the subject agree that we cannot and should not stop drilling for American oil. I wish Democrats were smart enough to know that they need to educate themselves -- and give a damn instead of simply wanting to throw the baby out with the bath water.

Tom Correa

Thursday, May 25, 2023


 Since I was in a conversation with someone who asked me where I get my information, I thought I'd take the time to let my new readers know that I still depend on "Primary Sources" instead of "Secondary Sources" for my articles. To understand the difference, we have to understand what is meant by a "Primary Source."

A primary source is defined as "a first-hand or contemporary account of an event or topic. They are the most direct evidence of a time or event because they were created by people or things that were there at the time or event. These sources have not been modified by interpretation and offer original thought or new information. Primary sources are original materials, regardless of format.

Oral histories, newspaper or journal articles, and memoirs or autobiographies are examples of primary sources created after the event or time in question but offering first-hand accounts. News articles, letters, diaries, meeting minutes, photographs, artifacts, interviews, and sound or video recordings are examples of primary sources created as a time or event is occurring. 

Primary sources may be transformed from their original format into a newer one, such as when materials are published or digitized, but the contents are still primary. There are many primary sources available online today, but many more are still available in their original format, in archives, museums, libraries, historical sites, and elsewhere."

The key to the validity of a primary source is that it remains unchanged and uninterpreted by those who may offer their opinions, conjectures, and suppositions of what took place. Some writers presume things and lead their readers to think something is true when there isn't any proof that it is true. They assume that something must exist, or is factual, or truthful when their statement is just assumed true without proof at all -- or is flimsy and sketchy. 

I like dealing with proven facts that I can prove by using a primary source. And really, as an old evidence teacher used to say, "What isn't a primary source is merely a secondary source -- and that's just second-hand information."

Secondary sources are defined as "sources which offer interpretation, analysis, or commentary. These resources are often information with the addition of hindsight or historical perspective. Common examples include criticisms, histories, and magazine, journal, or newspaper articles written after the fact. Some secondary sources may also be considered primary or tertiary sources - the definition of this term is not set in stone.

Below is a great example of a primary source about an event that took place in 1896. 

San Francisco Call, Volume 80, Number 1, 1 June 1896 — THREATENING TO LYNCH A FIEND, [ARTICLE]

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This story is right out of the San Francisco Call newspaper just as if you were reading it on June 1st, 1896. This is as good a primary source as one can get.

Tom Correa

Wednesday, May 17, 2023

Wallace Wilkerson -- An Execution Gone Wrong 1879

I was recently asked if I've ever heard of executions in the Old West that didn't exactly go as planned. While the most famous example of a hanging that didn't end as everyone expected is probably the hanging of  Thomas "Black Jack" Ketchum. 

When Ketchum was hanged, his weight gain and the use of a rope that was too thin, resulted in his head being ripped from his body. Another botched execution, while not as famous as what happened to Ketchum, is what happened to murderer Wallace Wilkerson.

Wallace Wilkerson was born sometime in 1834 in Quincy, Illinois. Because they were Mormons, his family moved to the Territory of Utah when he was eight. By seventeen, young Wallace Wilkerson worked as a local stock tender and horse breaker in and around the town of Payson, Utah. 

Most of this story comes from newspaper articles published in May of 1879. One of those articles states Wallace Wilkerson enlisted in the military and actually served in the Army stationed at the Presidio in San Francisco, California, for two years. While that article says it's so, I can't seem to find a record of his enlistment.

Sometime before 1877, he was married and lived with his wife in Payson, Utah. In 1877, Wallace Wilkerson and his two brothers worked in the nearby town of Homansville, Utah. While today Homansville is a Ghost Town that's little more than rubble about two miles east of the town of Eureka, Homansville developed around a water pumping operation for that area. Some sources say it once had more than one smelting operation, multiple homes, a general store, at least four saloons, and even a post office. Having a post office was a big deal because that means that it was recognized as a legitimate town at one time.

The nearby town known as Ruby Hollow was founded in 1870. It changed its name to Eureka in 1892. By 1910, Eureka had a population of around 3500 residents and was considered the 9th largest city in Utah. Today, with a population of 658, Eureka is referred to as a "Modern-day Ghost Town." 

But really, I sort of question the whole "Modern-day Ghost Town" label because other than a lot of empty old buildings on Main Street, the town still looks very much alive. Frankly, to me, especially based on where I live here in California with a population of 187, a town of 658 has a lot of people. And before you write to ask about my fascination with Eureka, let me explain. I know a Utah historian who said that when Eureka was known as Ruby Hollow, it was known as one of the quietest mining towns in the West in 1881. Imagine that? A "quiet" mining town in the Old West. 

As for a mining town being "quiet," it was anything but quiet in nearby Homansville on June 11, 1877. That was the day that Wallace Wilkerson was in a Homansville saloon owned by James Hightower. It was also the day that Wilkerson executed William Baxter. 

Baxter was a bartender who worked for James Hightower. But on that day, Baxter was not working there when he decided to stop in. Though they really didn't like each other, Wilkerson and Baxter began playing cribbage for money. 

According to reports, there was already bad blood between the two men ever since Baxter once called Wilkerson a "California Mormon" which is said to have been some sort of a slur at the time. Of course, what didn't help was that Baxter once pulled a pistol on Wilkerson during a situation when Baxter tried to stop Wilkerson from getting into a fistfight with another patron in the saloon.

So no, no one was surprised later when it was found out that a quarrel started during the cribbage game. And no, no one was surprised when Baxter accused Wilkerson of cheating. It's said they had a deep-seated hatred for each other. Of course, Wilkerson countered Baxter's accusation by telling Baxter that he was demanding money he didn't win. 

At some point in the argument, Wilkerson is said to have jumped up from his chair and started removing his coat as if preparing for a fistfight. Witnesses to what happened said that Baxter's tone changed, and told Wilkerson that he didn't want trouble. Frankly, that point had passed and Baxter backing down didn't stop Wilkerson from reaching under his vest and pulling out a pistol. 

Wilkerson shot Baxter in the forehead. To make matters even worse, reports say that after Baxter was slumped back in his chair, Wilkerson shot him again. In fact, Wilkerson walked around the table and grabbed Baxter by the hair, turned his head, and then shot him again in the temple before walking out of the saloon.

Those in the saloon who scattered for safety at the first shot had reemerged to attend to Baxter. While some left to put out the "hue and cry" and alert the citizenry, others are said to have guarded Baxter's body until the next morning when a local doctor acting as the coroner examined the body of Baxter.

For you who may have never heard of the "hue and cry," it is defined as "a loud cry calling for the pursuit and capture of a criminal." It was used throughout America for many years. Today, we use one version of the "hue and cry" by getting involved and being the "Eyes and Ears" of law enforcement. 

Back in the day, and as far back as the 13th Century in England, it was a law that ordered that  "anyone, either a constable or a private citizen, who witnessed a crime shall make hue and cry, and that the hue and cry must be kept up against the fleeing criminal from town to town and from county to county until the felon is apprehended and delivered to the sheriff." 

Believe it or not, all able-bodied men, upon hearing the shouts, were legally obliged to assist in the pursuit of the criminal. It was a violation of the law if one did not. That Old English law is believed to have been part of the foundation for our Posse Comitatus laws. As today, as what took place in the Old West, a posse is made up of citizens who are mobilized by a sheriff or other law enforcement official to suppress lawlessness, defend the people, or otherwise protect the place, property, and public welfare. Law enforcement officers today still maintain the authority to summon to his or her assistance any citizen to assist them.

To address what took place, and since there was no organized law enforcement in the area at the time, as was the case throughout the Old West, the local vigilance group was called out and started a search for Wilkerson. That posse didn't take them too long to find him and soon captured Wilkerson without trouble. Soon afterward, they almost immediately took him under guard to the town of Goshen. Acting in the absence of organized law enforcement, they knew that they needed to get him to the town of Goshen to prevent him from being lynched by locals who were friends of Baxter.

The next day when a doctor arrived to act as the coroner, it was a horrible scene of conflicting testimony at first. But then, it became apparent that Baxter was unarmed at the time of the shooting. It also became apparent what Wilkerson did after he initially shot Baxter. His actions were not merely that of someone committed to self-defense. He displayed the sort of malice which is defined as a desire to do evil.

When doing the research on this, I read that there was some speculation that a pistol may have been removed from Baxter's body in an attempt to make things appear worst for Wilkerson who was said to be unliked in the area. Of course, that was only speculation since no weapon was for on Baxter's body.

And in reality, even if Baxter was armed, even if Wilkerson's first shot what taken out of self-defense, the second shot fired by Wilkerson was enough to get him lynched as a mad dog killer. And no, that's not conjecture on my part. That's me simply stating that that's how people at the time looked at such horrid acts of malicious murder. 

Remember, in many places in the Old West, a malicious murder, or malice murder, was a criminal offense committed when a homicide is done with express or implied malice. Wilkerson grabbing the already dead Baxter by the hair, turning his head, and then shooting him again in the temple before walking out of the saloon demonstrated that.

The county grand jury didn't take too long to reach a conclusion. In fact, Wilkerson was indicted and charged with premeditated murder by a county grand jury. Yes, the grand jury realized the fact presented to them and determined that Wilkerson intentionally killed Baxter willfully, deliberately, and with planning. Whether it was Wilkerson's actions at his first shot or his second, the grand jury believed that he planned it in advance and carried it out willfully.

On September 29, 1877, he was arraigned and pleaded not guilty. He was placed in the Utah County jail awaiting his trial which took place at the First District Court of Utah Territory. His trial commenced on November 22. Believe it or not, he was convicted by a jury just two days later. 

On November 28, State District Judge P. H. Emerson stated that he was tired of the "rampant violence" and wanted to make an example of Wilkerson. Emerson sentenced Wilkerson to death and set an execution date of December 14, 1877. 

Before going on, let's take a look at this for a moment. Wilkerson shoots and kills Baxter on June 11, 1877. Wilkerson is held and arraigned on September 29, 1877. His trial commenced on November 22, 1877. Wilkerson is found guilty two days later on November 24, 1877. And as a result was set to be executed on December 14, 1877. From the time of his murderous act to the date of his scheduled execution was almost exactly 6 months. That's something to note as an example of how the Sixth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, and the right to a "speedy trial," is supposed to work. Six months from committing the act to being convicted of murder, when done right with evidence and witnesses gathered, and with all procedures being above board so as to not declare a mistrial, in my opinion, is unheard of these days. 

As for Wilkerson's execution, as crazy as it may sound, that Utah judge left it up to Wilkerson to choose how he would like to be executed. Wilkerson had to pick between three choices. Hangings and decapitation were legal in the Utah territory at the time. And yes, so was death by firing squad. Wallace Wilkerson chose death by firing squad. 

A stay of execution was issued after Wilkerson's attorney filed an appeal. But, the Supreme Court of Utah Territory denied the appeal in January 1878. Then on January 8, 1879, Wilkerson's attorneys E. D. Hoge and P. L. Williams submitted a writ of error to the Supreme Court of the United States during its October 1878 term. They raised an argument of "cruel and unusual punishment." 

On March 17, 1879, Supreme Court Justice Nathan Clifford delivered the U.S. Supreme Court ruling that upheld the verdict. It read as follows: 

Cruel and unusual punishments are forbidden by the Constitution, but the authorities referred to are quite sufficient to show that the punishment of shooting as a mode of executing the death penalty for the crime of murder in the first degree is not included in that category, within the meaning of the eighth amendment.

—U.S. Supreme Court, Wilkerson v. Utah (March 1879)

According to newspaper reports, on May 15, 1879, "Wallace Wilkerson was taken from Salt Lake City to a jail in Provo. Wilkerson spent his last day together with his wife until half an hour before the execution. He declined visits by the clergy. Wilkerson was brought out of his cell by Sheriff John Turner, a deputy, and U.S. Marshal Shaughnessy. 

Dressed in black with a white felt hat and a cigar which he kept through the execution. Wilkerson gave a farewell speech in which he thanked the law enforcement officers and even shook hands with some of the more than 20 people present in the jail yard in Provo. There were about 200 spectators who gathered outside the jail. 

It's interesting to note that Wilkerson told the crowd that he bore no grudge against anyone except a witness that he accused of committing perjury at his trial. And yes, multiple reports say that some there said later that Wilkerson with his cigar in his mouth thanking everyone for showing up actually appeared to be drunk." But really, who knows if that's true or not.

Wilkerson declined to be blindfolded as he sat on a chair at a corner of the jail yard about 35 feet away from a building with the shooters inside. He insisted that restraints were unnecessary One report said that he stated something to the effect, "I give you my word. I intend to die like a man, looking my executioners right in the eye." 

U.S. Marshal Shaughnessy pinned a small three-inch piece of white paper on Wilkerson's chest. It was meant to be the target on Wilkerson's chest over his heart which the firing squad was supposed to aim at. Later it was reported that after the sheriff pinned it, Wilkerson called, "Aim for my heart, Marshals!"

At approximately noon on May 16, 1879, the marshal rapped on the side wall of the small building where the firing squad sat, and out of small portholes came their rifle barrels. The second rap on the wall signaled the firing squad to fire. 

Whether it was when Wilkerson heard the first rap or a second before the second rap, he stiffened up and through his chest out as he sat up in the chair. He didn't realize that he unwittingly moved the small three-inch piece of white paper target. That created a mess that no one foresaw. 

At that split second of Wilkerson sitting up, the bullets fired had missed actually Wilkerson's heart. One of the bullets shattered his arm. The others slammed into his stomach. Hit but not dead, he leaped off of the chair and started screaming, "Oh, my God! My God! They've missed it!" 

Right then, the four doctors there rushed to Wilkerson's said not really knowing what to do. Were they supposed to treat him and try to stop his bleeding? Were they there to merely watch him bleed out, gasp, and struggle on the ground? Wilkerson convulsed and screamed in pain. The marshal said later that he didn't know if he was going to have to pick him up and place him back on that chair and actually have the firing squad shoot him again. 

It took Wilkerson a very long to bleed out and die. In fact, it was reported that time seemed to slow down before Wallace Wilkerson appeared to have finally died. He was actually pronounced dead a total of 27 minutes after he was shot. The doctors made that determination when he finally stopped squirming on the ground in the dirt. 

While some were horrified at what took place, some of Baxter's friends are said to have voiced their satisfaction to see that Wilkerson didn't die a swift death. Of course, in the end, Wallace Wilkerson's body was picked up off the dirt and carried to a nearby office at the county courthouse. He was washed and placed in a cheap coffin. His body was then turned over to his wife. She supposedly took him to the town of Payson for burial. 

Since a horse pulling a wagon while walking can go 3 to 4 miles per hour, one can only wonder how long that journey must have felt in a wagon going those 16 miles from Provo to Payson.

Tom Correa

Saturday, May 13, 2023

Patrick "Packey" McFarland -- Was He The Best Boxer Never To Become A World Champion?

In one of his last interviews in 1980, Hollywood legend James Cagney was asked about boxing and getting into fights as a youngster while growing up on the Eastside of New York. He replied that he grew up like every other kid and got into scrapes just like all kids did at the time. He said that he thought about becoming a boxer just like a lot of kids did, but he was talked out of it by his mother.

James Cagney went on to talk about his boyhood idol, a boxer by the name of Patrick "Packey" McFarland. He said, "Have you heard of Packey McFarland? Of course not, you haven't because that was so long ago. He was my idol. He was a hell of a boxer. He was a real fighter because he did it all and never even got a black eye. Which was great of course because of the hero worship I felt for him."

Since James Cagney was born in 1899, and brought up in New York City during the early 1900s, it makes total sense that he would have heard of the turn-of-the-century Irish boxer Packey McFarland. By the early 20th century, a lot of young men, especially those in the cities of the times, started to see boxing as a way out. Boxing, as I guess Basketball is today to youngsters in the inner cities, was looked at as a path to making big money and gaining a sort of greater social acceptance.

Let's remember that the Potato Famine in Ireland brought thousands of Irish to the United States. And, since it was at that time that professional boxing really took off in the United States, by the early 1900s the Irish had become a major force in professional boxing. So as for the hero worship of a boxer, at the time boxing was growing in popularity. And since many saw it as profitable, I see admiring another Irish American who is making something of himself as normal as can be. 

It's also as American as apple pie. Combined with its hero-making potential, boxing is custom-made to symbolize American resolve and resilience. It's all about fighting the good fight, giving all you have, and if you're knocked down, get up and keep fighting. Yes, that's as American as can be. Even if we've been knocked down a time or two, we keep getting back up.

As for Patrick "Packey" McFarland, he was born on November 1st, 1888, in Chicago, Illinois. He made his debut as a professional boxer on January 1st, 1904. He was just 15 years old and his first opponent was Pete West who he knocked out in the second round. As amazing as that might sound today, he had 12 fights that same year. 

As for his career in boxing? Between 1904 and 1915, Packey McFarland fought in 113 fights. Because 38 of those fights are listed as "NWS," his official boxing record is 75 fights. His official record has him down for 75 fights, with 0 wins, no losses, and 5 draws. Of his wins, he had 50 wins by knockouts, 19 by decision, and 1 by disqualification. As for having no official losses in those 113 fights, his ninth fight was his one-and-only loss -- but it was designated "NWS." That loss came against boxer Dusty Miller on July 13, 1904, when he lost the bout as an "NWS" or Newspaper Writers decision.

What's an "NWS," or "Newspaper Writers Decision," or "Newspaper Decision," in boxing, you ask? Well, Newspaper Writers' decisions, "NWS," were a type of decision in professional boxing that is thankfully no longer used. The result of who won or lost or if it ended in a draw, the decision of a fight, was made by a consensus of the Sportswriters who attended the bout. If that took place then that decision was designated "NWS."

It was something that was done when a fight ended with a "no decision" in some regions of the country back in the day. If a "no decision" was reached by the judges or referee, then it was up to the Sportswriters who were covering the fight to say who won or lost -- or if it were a draw. Believe it or not, as shady and open to payoffs as that was, newspapermen would be asked to give their opinion and declare who won, lost, or if it was a draw. 

Because it was their decision, it was printed in their publication the next day as an "NWS" decision. That told fans that they made the call and not a judge or referee. Because of the fact that such decisions were open to all sorts of favoritism, and crooks, an "NWS" decision by Sportswriters was not official. It was not part of the fighter's official record. 

And by the way, imagine if you would that someone asked a Sportswriter who won while knowing that he either hates one of the boxers or has put money down on a bet? That's why, thankfully, boxing eliminated the use of the practice of Sportswriters making such decisions. That's also why boxing went from using the referee and two judges to score each round, to today's system of using three judges with the ten-point system. It's much harder to cheat.

So in Packey McFarland's case, the one loss that he was given by the Newspaper Sportswriters, is listed as an "NWS," but it does not count on his official fight record. That means, his unofficial record is 113 fights, 106 wins, and 1 loss. His wins are 50 by knockout, 55 by decision, 1 by disqualification, and 6 by draw.

It should be noted that in 1908, though the fight wasn't a title fight, Packey McFarland actually beat the Lightweight World Championship Jimmy Britt in a TKO (technical knockout). Jimmy Britt and boxer Freddie Welsh had a disputed claim to the Lightweight World Championship title. While at the same time that those two were disputing who rightfully had a claim to the Lightweight World Championship title, Packey McFarland fought both and won against both.

It's true. Packey McFarland defeated Lightweight World Championship Freddie Welsh in their non-title bout in February of 1908, then defeated Lightweight World Championship Jimmy Britt in their non-title fight in April. Packey McFarland then fought Freddie Welsh to a draw in July of that same year. In 1910, Packey McFarland fought Freddie Welsh again for the British version of the Lightweight Championship title. That bout ended in another draw. Of course, with the fight ending in a draw, Freddie Welsh retained his British title.

During Packey McFarland's career as a boxer, he fought from coast to coast throughout the Midwest and in Europe a staggering number of bouts each year. Today, professional boxers who have built a name for themselves tend to limit their fights to 1 to 3 times a year. Amature fighters can box a lot more simply because they are trying to build their name and gain recognition. 

A top-ranked professional boxer fighting every month, nevertheless every few days is something unheard of today -- but apparently was commonplace for boxers in those days. It's true. It might amaze folks to know that his fights were in most cases less than a month apart. And it's a fact that at the height of his professional boxing career, his fights were only just a few days apart.

For example, he fought 2 bouts in January and in February, and 3 in March of 1905. In 1906, he fought 3 bouts in February just a few days apart. He fought 2 bouts that June and 2 in July that same year. In 1911, he fought a total of 17 fights in that year alone. It's true, in 1911 he fought 4 bouts a few days apart in January, 2 bouts in February, 2 bouts in March, 3 bouts in April, and 3 in November. The only two months that he didn't have bouts were August and September of that year.

In 1912, Packey McFarland beat what he did in 1911 by fighting 21 fights in one year. So besides having a bout in January, he had 3 bouts in February, 3 bouts in March, 2 bouts in April, 4 fights in May, 2 fights in June, a bout in August, 3 in October, 2, in November, and 2 in December of 1912. The only two months in 1912 that he wasn't in a ring somewhere were July and September.

His 111th fight was a win against Harry Trendall on December 4th, 1913. He was 25 years old. He fought and won two more times that year, but both were classified as "NWS" newspaper decisions. Those wins were his last professional fights. While he did not fight in 1914, Packey McFarland decided to retire from professional boxing in 1915.

After leaving the ring, he worked with the U.S. Army during World War I. Besides seeing boxing as a way to keep soldiers fit and develop warfighting skills, the U.S. Army used boxing as a training tool was used to build courage and good character traits. For the Army, Packey McFarland was just what they were looking for. They utilized his talents in the ring to teach boxing to soldiers. In fact, during World War I, he was assigned as the boxing instructor at Camp Zachary Taylor.

Although he never fought for a world title, Packey McFarland made a lot of money. In fact, in 1912, it was reported that he had earned $200,000 since becoming a professional boxer a mere eight years earlier. According to some sources, he made $110,000 from his bouts and $90,000 from being asked to appear in theatric shows. So for him, boxing enabled him to become a fairly wealthy man for the times. And along with his investments in the building-contracting and brewing businesses, he was able to comfortably retire from boxing.

After World War I, he managed his sizable investments, he volunteered to teach boxing to kids also to build good character traits, and he even served for a time as director of the Joliet National Bank. As for boxing, it is said that Packey McFarland tutored Barney Ross who defeated Tony Canzoneri in 1933 to win the World Lightweight and Junior Welterweight Championships.

On January 27th, 1933, he was appointed to the Illinois Athletic Commission by Governor Henry Horner. Then, on September 22, 1936, after being ill for two months, Packey McFarland died at his home in Joliet, Illinois, of a streptococcus infection that attacked his heart. He was 47 years old. He was survived by a widow, three daughters, and a son.

On June 7, 1992, Patrick "Packey" McFarland was inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame in Canastota, New York.

During his tenure as a fighter, Packey McFarland squared off against some of the greatest boxers of all time. The list of outstanding fighters McFarland defeated includes Benny Yanger, Freddie Welsh, Jimmy Britt, Phil Brock, Leach Cross, Cyclone Johnny Thompson, Jack Goodman, Jack Britton, Tommy Kilbane, Young Ahearn, Tommy Devlin, and Mike Gibbons. That's why today, Patrick "Packey" McFarland is ranked as one of greatest fighters of all time -- and possibly, the best boxer never to have become a World Champion. 

I certainly hope you enjoyed this story of a great American boxer.

Tom Correa

Saturday, May 6, 2023

Esther Hobart Morris -- Her Statue Deserves A Place Of Prominence And Respect In Wyoming

Esther Hobart Morris

I'm so frustrated with the way America's Heroes are being treated these days. Great men and women who sacrificed so much, worked so hard, pushed, toiled, failed, came short again and again, didn't stop, didn't give up, kept going, and in fact, did great things. And how do we repay them for their efforts? We name a bridge or a highway after them. We name a building in their honor. We place a plague on some wall in a government building explaining why that person should be remembered. In some cases, we honor them by erecting a statue of their likeness. 

According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, Esther Hobart Morris' full name was Esther Hobart McQuigg Slack Morris, née Esther Hobart McQuigg. We know her as Esther Hobart Morris, the First Woman to be a Justice of the Peace in United States history. 

According to her biography, she was born Esther McQuigg near Spencer, New York, in Tioga County, on August 8, 1814. By the time she was 11 years old, her parents died and she was orphaned. In reality, she and her nine siblings were all orphaned. All were "farmed out" to various relatives.

Esther went on to apprentice as a seamstress and eventually started her own millinery business. When she was 27 years old, she married Artemus Slack. That was in 1841 and she was widowed only three years later. 

Living in Peru, Illinois with her infant son, she decided to settle the property held there by her late husband's estate. Unable by law at the time to own or inherit property, she ran into trouble settling the estate. In those days, even though they were married, women didn't usually have rights to their husband's property. In most cases after a husband died, their property when to his nearest male relative. Women weren't recognized as "people" and not "property" yet. 

You probably think I'm exaggerating. Well, I'm not. Most people today have no idea how hard it has been for women in America. Even before America won its independence from England, women were treated less than second-class citizens. After the Revolutionary War, many of the customs that were in place didn't change. 

The rights that American women enjoy today were not even imaginable in the 1800s. From suffrage and having the basic right to vote as citizens to wage equality and legal protections afforded women today,  many American women today take for granted the rights that were fought for on many fronts. And yes, that includes the battle for women’s property rights.

In 1787, Massachusetts was the first state to allow some married women to conduct business on their own. This was so wives of merchants or traders could continue running the family shop while their sea-faring husbands were at sea. 

But for most of the nation, it wasn't until the 1840s that women were legally granted the right to own property. And really, that was only in a few states. In those days, their husbands or another male relative had complete control over any property that was left to a wife upon their husband's death. This limited the financial independence of women for generations.

With the passage of the Married Women’s Property Act in 1848 and the Act Concerning the Rights and Liabilities of Husband and Wife in 1860 in the New York state legislature, things started changing for the better because every married woman in New York was seen as being entitled to her husband's property if her husband died without leaving a will. So, besides having the right to independently conduct business, women could hold sole ownership of any inherited property.

As for Esther, she was living independently, running her own successful millinery business when she met and married a local merchant, John Morris. Besides becoming active in seeking women's rights, she is said to have been already active in supporting the abolition of slavery.

By 1869, the whole Morris family had moved and settled in South Pass City in the Wyoming Territory. As originally just a stage and telegraph station on the Oregon Trail in the 1850s, South Pass City boomed when gold was found nearby in 1866. 

Her husband opened a saloon and bought interests in several of the local mines in 1868. Esther and the children followed him there in 1869. It is said that they boarded "the newly-completed transcontinental railroad and then a stagecoach to reach South Pass City. The family lived in a 24-foot by 26-foot, sod-roofed log cabin." 

It was while in Wyoming that Esther became involved in the fight to get women the right to vote, as an American suffragist she played a major role in gaining voting rights for women in Wyoming. And please, don't think that wasn't a big deal. It was a milestone for the national women’s suffrage movement.
As with most boomtowns that go bust, the gold rush there may have been pretty good in 1868 and 1869 when the town boasted a population of over 2,000, but soon things started to change when the mines didn’t produce what folks had hoped for. 

Esther tirelessly fought for granting women the right to vote in Wyoming Territory. As we know, her fight did not go for naught since the Wyoming Territory's enfranchisement of women did come about in 1869, along with laws giving married women control of their own property, and providing equal pay for female teachers.

Esther Hobart Morris was the first woman ever to serve as Justice of the Peace in the entire history of the United States. She was appointed Justice of the Peace in South Pass City, Wyoming after the previous justice resigned in protest after Wyoming Territory passed a woman suffrage amendment in December 1869 when Wyoming Territory had granted women the right to vote.

District Court Judge John W. Kingman appointed her Justice of the Peace and the Sweetwater County Board of Commissioners in a vote of two to one approved her application on February 14, 1870. Her first act was to arrest her predecessor, who refused to hand over his court docket. Eventually, she dismissed her own case, ruling that she, as an interested party, could not arrest the former justice, and recused herself.

Esther Morris's appointment to Justice of the Peace was big news across the nation. It was so big that the county clerk sent a telegraph along the wires: “Wyoming, the youngest and one of the richest Territories in the United States, gave equal rights to women in action as well as words.”

Her biography says it was "a job for which, despite the rough character of the gold-mining town, her robust frame and blunt fearlessness well suited her. She became the very first woman ever to hold such a position, and in her eight and a half months in the post, she tried more than 70 cases expeditiously and without reversal."

So why was she only a Justice of the Peace for eight and half months? Well, when boomtowns go bust, their population can drop like a rock. It happened all through the Old West. Take the town of Tombstone, Arizona, for example. After its boom in 1879, it is said to have had a population as large as 10,000 people. Then just a few years later by 1883, the population of Tombstone was less than 1000 people. 

The same happened to South Pass City when the population there had fallen to under 500 people by 1870. And by 1875, there were less than 100 people left there. As for Esther and her husband, to add to the problems of his saloon business going under, a fire destroyed their business in 1871. 

During this time, it's said her husband John's reputation in town as being a lazy drunk and brawler had taken a toll on her. In 1872, Esther left her husband and South Pass City and moved to Laramie, Wyoming. 

In February of 1872, she attended the American Woman Suffrage Association convention in San Francisco, In 1873, she was actually placed on the ballot to run as a state representative. In 1876, she served as the vice president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. In July of that year, she was in Philadelphia to address the national suffrage convention.

In her later years, she was honored for her role in helping to obtain the right to vote for women in Wyoming. For the entire nation, Wyoming was the first state to observe women's rights as equals to men at the ballot box. And though many back in the day tried to say that Esther Morris had a leadership role in the success of the woman’s suffrage amendment in Wyoming Territory, to her credit she never claimed credit. Instead, she gave credit to William H. Bright who was President of the Territorial Council and represented South Pass City in the territorial legislature at the time.

Esther later moved to Albany, New York, and then to Springfield, Illinois. It is said that she spent winters in Springfield and summers in Wyoming with her sons. It was in the 1880s that she returned to Wyoming moving to Cheyenne to live with her son Robert. She died at the age of 82 in Cheyenne on April 3, 1902.

She was laid to rest in the family plot in Lakeview Cemetery. For such a woman who had such a big impact on women's rights, I was sort of surprised to see that such a small headstone marks her grave. 

Esther Hobart Morris statue by artist Avard Fairbanks
 in the National Statuary Hall in the US Capitol in Washington, DC

In 1960, a statue of her by artist Avard Fairbanks was in fact placed in the National Statuary Hall in the US Capitol in Washington, DC. A replica of the statue was placed outside the Wyoming State Capitol in Cheyenne in 1963.

The statue was moved to the basement during the $300 million Wyoming Capitol renovation project that began about five years ago. And now, even though the renovation work was completed in 2019, for some reason no one in Wyoming wants to move her statue back outside where it was for 60 years. 

So yesterday, May 5, 2023, I read that the State of Wyoming has decided to keep her statue in their Capitol's basement until someone can figure out where to put it so that it doesn't offend someone. 

Yes, this is what I'm talking about when I say that I'm frustrated with the way America's Heroes are being treated these days. I can't believe that such a thing is happening in Cheyenne, Wyoming. I can understand it if it were New York City, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Chicago, Austin, or even Atlanta where statues are vandalized and removed. And frankly, the deeds and efforts of others mean nothing to those living in those cities today. And sadly, the reasons for erecting such memorials as statues have a tendency to elude over time. Sadly, it's mostly out of ignorance and apathy of the people living today. 

But I thought the folks in Cheyenne, Wyoming were different. I really thought they understood why her statue deserves a place of prominence and respect and not merely left in a basement. At the least, I would think they would fight to return her statue to her rightful spot outside. It seems to be a place of honor for all to see, as it has been since 1963. 

Tom Correa

Wednesday, May 3, 2023

Neighborhood Watch - What To Look For

In my blog post, Neighborhood Watch -- How to Organize A Neighborhood Watch Group, I talked about how to get a Neighborhood Watch started. So now, let's talk about what to look for as a member of a Neighborhood Watch group. 

First, we must remember that an important responsibility of Neighborhood Watch members is to accurately report crimes in progress and suspicious activities to their Police Department or County Sheriff’s Office. Below are a few examples of situations that need to be reported. 

When observing a suspicious person, vehicle, activity, or crime in progress, do not hesitate to call your Police Department or County Sheriff’s Office non-emergency line to report suspicious activity or call 911 to report emergencies.

  • Someone going door-to-door or looking into home windows and parked cars.
  • People stripping an abandoned car.
  • A person having no purpose wandering in the neighborhood.
  • Any unusual or suspicious noise that you can’t explain, such as breaking glass, pounding, or general noise from somewhere where it shouldn’t be.
  • Vehicles moving slowly, without lights, or with no apparent destination.
  • Business transactions being conducted from vehicles by strangers who don’t live there.
  • People offering to selling stolen property either door-to-door or from a vehicle.
  • Observing property being carried by persons on foot at an unusual hour or place, especially if the person is running.
  • Someone out of the ordinary running from a car or residence.
  • People stealing contents from mailboxes and/or packages from porches.
  • Property being removed from closed businesses.
  • Squatters entering residences that are known to be unoccupied or boarded up.
  • A stranger entering a neighbor’s home, either on vacation or unoccupied.
  • A child resisting the advances of an adult.
  • Fire coming from a building or a place where it should not be.
  • Someone screaming for help or in trouble. Especially if you can’t determine what the screams are for.

Before and after reporting a crime or suspicious activity:
  • If you can see the person committing the crime, try to keep him or her in view and monitor their movement to report their location and what they are doing.
  • Keep your safety in mind and don't attempt to apprehend a suspect.
  • If in your home, keep a pen and paper near the phone.
  • Have your neighbors’ street addresses available.
  • Properly identify the locations you are reporting.
  • Stay alert and aware of activities in your neighborhood.
  • Pay attention to particulars and be as specific as possible in your reporting.
  • Know your neighbors, what kind of cars they own, and their activities.
  • Neighborhood Watch works best when everyone is informed, concerned, aware, and cooperative.
  • Deputies need to have accurate information as quickly as possible about suspicious activity or crime in progress. 
  • Only alert your neighbors to the crime, after you call 911.
  • Your 911 call goes to a computer that identifies the telephone number from which you are calling, including your name.
  • Your call is automatically relayed to the emergency agency.
  • The dispatcher determines your emergency needs and verifies the address of the emergency before prioritizing your call.
  • Be ready with as much information as you can offer when the 911 Operator takes your report.

The 911 System is designed to handle the following types of situations: life-threatening emergencies, medical emergencies, and/or crimes in progress.
  • Please do not call 911 if there is no emergency.
  • The 911 Operators are specifically instructed to handle only emergency calls.
  • When you call 911, the operator will assess your situation and may instruct you to call back on the non-emergency line.
Please do not let this deter you from calling. Remember, sometimes there are only two to three 911 operators that can only handle so many calls at a time.
  • Use the non-emergency number to report something that is NOT an emergency.
  • When you see suspicious activity, CALL THE SHERIFF’S OFFICE OR YOU POLICE!
The operators are trained to decide whether your situation warrants a Deputy response.
  • Calls are dispatched on a priority system, with emergencies dispatched first.
  • Even if a deputy is unable to respond as quickly as you would like, it is still important for you to report suspicious activity.
  • If a Deputy is going to respond, the dispatcher will decide when to send them to your location.

Remain calm and give the dispatcher your information slowly over the phone:
  • Identify yourself by name, address, and telephone number.
  • Identify the type of incident (burglary, assault, suspicious person, vehicle being stolen, etc.).
  • Describe if the activity is a crime “in progress” or something that “has already occurred”.
  • Be sure to note the time of occurrence.
  • Describe location. Be as specific as possible. Try to have an address for the dispatcher when you call in your report.
  • If an address is not available, have the street name, names of cross streets, intersecting streets, and/or a specific description of the house or area.
  • Give as complete a description as possible of a vehicle that may have been used by the culprit(s) in the commission of the crime you are reporting, including cars, motorcycles, bicycles, etc.
  • Give as complete a description as possible of the culprit(s) involved.
  • Give as complete a description as possible of any associates also observed.
  • Give as complete a description of any weapons that might have also been involved.
  • Give the direction of travel (north, south, east, or west) which they fled, if so.

Remain calm and give the dispatcher your information slowly over the phone:
  • When reporting a crime in progress, ask yourself if there is potential for harm or injury, and if it is in the process of taking place at that moment? If so, then describe what is happening at that moment.
  • Describe who is involved, if known, what is taking place, be as specific as possible regarding the location where it is taking place and include whether a weapon is involved.
  • If it is something that has already taken place within a short period of time, describe whether it was against persons or property, if there is a possibility of quick apprehension with a Deputy response, or if you believe that there is the need for a Deputy to respond to prevent further acts of violence.
  • Let 911 know if you can see the person committing the crime or still have them in view, their location, and what they are doing. 
  • Finally, try to remain on the telephone and assist the dispatcher as much as possible until you are no longer needed. The more information you give the dispatcher the better.

Neighborhood Watch Members need to gather and relate accurate information and descriptions when calling in a report to 911. To do this, Watch Members need to use their powers of observation to help gather as much information as possible to help them give the best report possible when calling in either suspicious activity or an actual crime in progress.

To better assist Neighborhood Watch Members, here are some of the most important identifiers that Dispatch and your law enforcement professionals may need to know to assist them in apprehending criminal suspects.

This information can give your Police and Deputies accurate descriptions of a criminal or criminal incident that you may observe. This should assist you in your efforts to produce accurate descriptions and reports when calling 911 or a non-emergency line.

  • Observe where you are and the exact location of the crime or suspicious activity.
  • If the suspect left the scene, note the direction that he went.
  • Was the suspect on foot or in a vehicle?
  • If in a vehicle, were there others in the vehicle?
  • Was the suspect vehicle a car, truck, van, or motorcycle?
  • If it was a vehicle, did you get its license plate number? Or was the vehicle missing its license plate?
  • Vehicle color, make, model, condition?
  • Was it dirty or damaged, had a loud engine or muffler, did it have distinctive decals. tinted windows, etc.
  • What direction was that vehicle going?
  • Note the time as precisely as possible.
  • Since the term "trans" means nothing, was the person a male or female?
  • Was it a man dressed as a woman or a woman dressed as a man?
  • Was the suspect carrying a weapon, tools, a club, a tire iron, containers of liquor, etc.?
  • If it is a weapon, was it a handgun, rifle, shotgun, knife, club, piece of pipe, or some other weapon?
  • Ask yourself if you’ve ever seen that person in the area before. Was he alone or with others?
  • What was his Age (estimated)"
  • What was his Height (estimated)? Use comparisons with your own height to assist you.
  • What was his Weight (estimated)?
  • What was his Race, Color, or National Origin?
  • What was his Build? Was he fat, husky, slim, muscular, sickly thin?
  • What was his Speech like? Did he speak with an accent? Did he use some sort of slang?
  • Was he sweating? Out of breath? Was he running and in a hurry?
  • Did he appear angry, intoxicated, or confused, was he screaming at someone or no one?
  • Did you see any distinctive tattoos? What was it? How Big? Where was it? What part of the body was it located?
  • What color was his hair, hairline, and style? Was he bald? Did he have a shaved head?
  • Was he wearing clear glasses or dark glasses?
  • Did his face have piercings, nose or eyebrows, or lips pierced?
  • Did his ears have earrings, holes, or piercings?
  • Was his complexion dark, pockmarked, with acne, and visible scars?
  • Did he wear a beard? What color was it? How long was it?
  • Did he have a mustache? What shape was it? Did he have a goatee?
  • Was he clean-shaven, or unshaven, did he have large sideburns, or a beard and no mustache?
  • Did he or she have facial tattoos?
  • Was he a man in women's clothing or a woman in men's clothing?
  • Was he wearing a hat? What color, type, and style was it? Was it a ball cap?
  • Did he wear it forward, backward, or to one side?
  • Did his hat have ornaments, or business or sports logos?
  • Was he wearing a coat or a jacket? What color and style was it?
  • What color, design, and sleeve length of the shirt, blouse, or dress?
  • Was it a no-collar t-shirt? Was anything on it, front or back?
  • Did his shirt have a sports logo or something political or something else that made it distinctive?
  • What color and style of jeans, trousers, slacks, or skirt?
  • Was he wearing shoes or boots? Color, type, style, condition?
  • Was he or she wearing a sweater, scarf, gloves, or necktie?
  • Was he or she wearing rings, a watch, bracelets, or necklaces?
  • Were his clothing odd colors, patchwork, unusual in some way?
  • General appearance – neat or sloppy, clean, or dirty?
  • Did they appear to be living on the street?

By getting involved in the Neighborhood Watch group in your community, you can help your family, friends, and community. By being observant, reporting what you see, and being a good witness with written notes, you can be the "Eyes and Ears" that help your Police Department or Sheriff's Office in their battle to fight crime near your home.

  • If you have a Neighborhood Watch program, then your local law enforcement professionals should be available to assist you with implementing crime deterrence, including posting Neighborhood Watch signs and handing out window decals to be put in the window of homes.
  • If you want to start a Neighborhood Watch group, it's a pretty sure bet that your local law enforcement professionals will assist you with starting one.
  • Your local law enforcement agency can encourage participants to recognize crimes and suspicious activity, train participants on how to report suspicious activity, train participants in ways to reduce their risk of being victimized and address security and safety issues in their community.

Neighborhood Watch was launched in 1972 by the National Sheriff’s Association as a vehicle for citizens to organize themselves and work with law enforcement. The concept of Neighborhood Watch can trace its roots back to the days of Colonial Settlements when volunteer night watchmen of Citizen Watch Groups patrolled the streets of towns and cities.

  • Neighborhood Watch works with your local Police Department and Sheriff's Office, but it is not a vigilante force working outside the normal procedures of law enforcement.
  • Neighborhood Watch is not designed for participants to take personal risks to prevent crime.
  • And of course, participation in a Neighborhood Watch program is not a 100% guarantee that crime will not occur in your area.
  • As an association of neighbors who contribute to the safety and security of their neighborhood by working together with your local law enforcement professionals as their “Eyes and Ears.”
  • Neighborhood Watch Groups bring your local law enforcement professionals and the community together to work as a Team to fight crime.
  • The major benefit of Neighborhood Watch is that it increases response to criminal activities while also instilling a greater sense of security and well-being.
  • Neighborhood Watch also helps to reduce the fear of crime in your community.
  • Since we look out for each other by getting involved, your vigilance will help your local law enforcement professionals fight crime.
If there is a critical situation such as a break-in, a neighbor yelling for help, someone in medical distress, and/or shots are fired, call 911 immediately. 

Get involved! Call your Police Department or County Sheriff’s Office non-emergency line to report suspicious activities. And please, don't hesitate to call 911 to report emergencies. 

Tom Correa