Friday, September 29, 2017

Henry Reed Farley - Death Of A Lawman 1899

Here's a story about the needless killing of a County Sheriff in 1899. His murder sent local vigilantes on a frantic search to lynch his killer. 

According to the Monterey County Sheriff’s Office, Henry Reed Farley was born in Salinas, California, in March of 1870. He was Michael and Rodalee Farley’s fourth of six children.

Henry's father was a lawyer originally from Massachusetts. His mother was originally from Alabama. Henry grew up and lived in Salinas. He attended school there, and while not yet 24 years of age, Henry was appointed Postmaster of the small town of Gonzales, California. That was on January 11th, 1894.
Gonzales is a town in Monterey County about 17 miles Southeast of Salinas. At the age of 26, Henry was said to be a journalist for a local newspaper in Gonzales.

On January 1st, 1899, at age 29, he became the Sheriff of Monterey County. He may have been the youngest man to ever be elected County Sheriff in the State of California up to that time.

He had only been with the Sheriff’s Department for 9 months when he was shot and killed while attempting to arrest a suspect. He was 29 years old when he was killed. Newspapers stated "never before has this county seen such a large funeral." All stores, saloons, and schools were shut down from 9 am to 12 pm, and all flags were flown at half-staff. At the time of his death, Sheriff Farley was survived by his mother Mrs. Rodalee Farley.

Among other newspapers such as the San Francisco Call, Monterey County Sheriff Farley's death was in the Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 98, Number 29, September 19th, 1899. It ran the following story.



Shot and Killed by a Man Whom He Attempted to Arrest — Talk of Lynching the Murderer.

SALINAS, Sept. 18. H. R. Farley, Sheriff of Monterey County, was shot and killed at 11 o'clock to-night by George Ceasar, whom he was trying to arrest for arson.

Ceasar, who is a German, aged 22 years, had been drinking heavily, and threatened to shoot four officers and burn up the town. About 10 o'clock an alarm was turned in, and it was found that a barn was on fire. Soon afterward fire was discovered in an adjoining cottage, and it was at once suspected that Ceasar was carrying out his threat.

Sheriff Farley, accompanied by former District Attorney Zabal, went in search of Ceasar, who had run home and armed himself with a double-barreled gun. As Farley entered the house Ceasar advanced a few feet, fired, and shot the officer through the head. Farley died in a few minutes.

While Zabal was administering to his dying comrade the murderer escaped. The entire country was soon aroused, however, and posses went out from near and far to search for the assassin. An hour after the shooting he was discovered hiding in a cellar.

The mob frantically proclaimed its intention to lynch him, and a posse of Deputy Sheriffs and Constables had a most difficult time in protecting the prisoner. While argument ran high one of the Constables, unobserved, managed to smuggle Ceasar into a buggy and drove off at a gallop to the County Jail before the mob realized the ruse. 

Sheriff Farley was perhaps the most popular man in Monterey County. He was 29 years of age, and last November was elected Sheriff by a large majority over John Matthews, who had filled the Sheriff's office for twelve years. 

Prior to his election Farley had been a newspaper man, his last journalistic venture having been the editorship of the Gonzales "Tribune." 

His murderer was as much despised in Salinas as the Sheriff was beloved. He has been considered a worthless character. He has no occupation. 


Sept. 19—1 a. m. — The revengeful men of Salinas declare that they will hang Ceasar to-night, provided he does not die from the loss of blood. He was shot in the stomach by Constable Allen, and when captured in the cellar was weak from loss of blood. It is also believed he shot himself, but inflicted only a flesh wound. 

No one in Salinas now knows whether Ceasar is dead or alive, because he was driven off by a Deputy Sheriff to protect him from the certain vengeance of the mob.

It now transpires that Ceasar was never in the jail, although many for a time believed him to be there. The officers, knowing that they could not protect their prisoner, drove him toward the hills, and it is generally believed the murderer was taken to Hollister, as it is said he would have been safe nowhere in Monterey County.

Meanwhile the crowd has never left the jail. They are all armed with ropes as well as pistols and shotguns, and they say the murderer of the youngest Sheriff in the State will be summarily punished.

The town, and in fact the entire county, is aroused as it never was before. The men who are trying to lynch Ceasar are not the disorderly element, but comprise some of the most important citizens of the county. They are firm in their resolve to promptly avenge the death of Sheriff Farley, and say they will remain at the jail all night. 

Detachments of citizens mounted and in buggies are scouring; the foothills, and they say if they find the murderer in charge of his guardians the latter will be forced to give up j their prisoner to swift punishment. At 2 a. m. excitement in Salinas has in no wise abated, and many still hope to avenge Farley by lynching his murderer.

Frederick Ceasar, a brother of George, came into town about 1:30 a. m., proclaiming that he was the "brother of the man who killed Farley." Had he not been hustled away he would certainly have suffered violence at the hands of the infuriated citizens.

-- end of Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 98, Number 29, September 19th, 1899 article. 

Besides a few different newspapers of the times to compare stories of his death, and since the standard line of "he was shot and killed while attempting to arrest a suspect" really doesn't sit well with me, I dug deeper to find out how Sheriff Farley died.

On the night of September 18th, 1899, George Ceasar tried to ditch the pursuing officers and eventually made it to his father's house on Pajaro Street. Sheriff Farley and Deputy Keef arrived on the scene close behind him.

As soon as they arrived, the Sheriff came face to face with Ceasar in an alley behind his father's house. George Ceasar was indeed armed with a shotgun. And yes, reports state that Sheriff Farley made a number of attempts to defuse the situation and talk Ceasar into surrendering.

Sheriff Farley was heard to have said, "George, George, be quiet, keep cool."

To which Ceasar reportedly replied, "Stand back or I'll shoot you."

Sheriff Farley's last words were "No you won't George, you know me."

Ceasar fired both barrels and killed the young Sheriff.

A newspaper stated, "The Spirit of Henry Reed Farley winged it's flight to the Great Beyond".

Monterey County Sheriff Henry Reed Farley's life was cut short on September 18th, 1899. He had only been County Sheriff for 9 months when he was senselessly murdered by George Ceasar.

Newspapers like the Sacramento Daily Union and the San Francisco Call reported that the Sheriff had been murdered. Citizens in the town of Gonzales were angry and wanted to lynch Ceasar. A few newspapers reported how, among other things taking place, gun shop owners opened their doors and  passed out rifles and pistols and shotguns to local vigilantes that were out beating the bushes looking for Ceasar. Hardware store owners are said to have passed out lanterns and ropes so that he could be lynched.

George Ceasar was arrested by Salinas City Marshal William Nesbitt and Deputy Keef. Nesbit himself later became County Sheriff. Deputy Keef was the officer who took Ceasar to the jail in San Jose to avoid the vigilantes that had surrounded the county jail in Monterey.

Ceasar was hanged at San Quentin Prison on July 15th, 1904. It's said that the people of Monterey County celebrated when they got the word that George Ceasar had finally been hanged. Yes, they loved Sheriff Farley that much.

Tom Correa

Friday, September 22, 2017

Judge Roy Bean -- Law West of the Pecos

There has been a lot written about Judge Roy Bean. In fact, I'd say that besides all of the books written about him, almost every Old West website on the Internet has something written about him. I promised my friend that I would finish this, and I have. It may be a side of Judge Roy Bean that you might not have known.

Some time ago, actually a few years ago, my friend Les Kinsey asked me to look into Judge Roy Bean. My friend Les Kinsey is from Texas. If anyone knows anything about folks from Texas, then they know real well about their Texas pride. And yes, no matter where they roam, they'll always be from Texas. Of course reading about the history of Texas, I understand how that's the case. It's very justified.

My friend's family goes back to the start of Texas. I found out through Les that his great-grandfather knew Judge Roy Bean pretty well. I'm sure his family has a few great stories about their dealings with the old judge. For me, I would've loved to have had the chance to chew the fat for a while with Les' relations in Texas who knew the Judge. I would have loved to hear some of their tales. But since that's not the case, as with others who I've written about on here, I have to go with what I've read and learned about the man.

He was born sometime in 1825 in Mason County, Kentucky. His birth name was Phantly Roy Bean, Jr., so it's not a surprise that he went by "Roy." He was the youngest of five children. He had three brothers and a sister. It's said that the Bean family was very poor. So poor in fact that at a fairly young age, around 16, Roy ventured out for himself on a flatboat headed to New Orleans looking for work.

A flatboat is a lot like a barge. It was used to haul freight and passengers. The interesting thing about a flatboat back in the day is that they were pretty much a use one and tear apart vessel. It's true, flatboats on the rivers were usually torn apart for their lumber once they'd reach where they were going.

As for Roy in New Orleans, I haven't been able to find out what sort of trouble he got into there. But we do know that what ever it was, it was enough to make him flee Louisiana and head for Texas. In fact, after leaving New Orleans, Roy went to San Antonio where his older brother Sam was working as a teamster and bullwhacker.

His brother Sam hauled freight to Santa Fe and on to Chihuahua, Mexico. In 1848, Sam and Roy decided try their hand at going into business for themselves by opening up a trading post in Chihuahua. Most agree that that wasn't a real smart move as the area was considered pretty rough. In fact, it was so rough that Roy is said to have actually shot and killed a Mexican bandit there.

The story goes that the bandit was a local outlaw who wanted to "kill a gringo." Roy felt threatened and killed the desperado before the bandit killed him. While that sounds like a clear cut case of self-defense, they were in Mexico. And since he and Sam were on the Mexican side of the river, they fled to Sonora one step ahead of the Mexican authorities who wanted to charge Roy charge with murder.

About a year later, in 1849, Roy moved to San Diego, California. It's true, he moved to San Diego to live with his older Joshua. Believe it or not, Joshua Bean was elected the first American mayor of the city of San Diego in 1850.

I find it interesting that Joshua Bean served with future president Zachary Taylor during the Mexican-American War. When Joshua left the Army, his unit was in California. That's how Joshua arrived in California in 1849, and then San Diego in 1850. After Joshua left the Army, he opened up a trading post and saloon. After San Diego became a town, he was elected the first American mayor of San Diego. And yes, I find that incredible.

As for Joshua, after giving up the post of Mayor, he left San Diego and moved to San Gabriel, which is near Los Angeles, where he opens up "The Headquarters Saloon".

In November of 1852, Joshua was killed in an ambush just outside of the town of San Gabriel. According to some sources, he was killed over a woman. Of course, there are other sources that say he may have been killed over a shady land deal while he was mayor of San Diego.

As for his younger brother Roy, while in California with his brother, at one point during his stay he found himself in a dual with a Scot by the name of Collins. Yes, it was over a woman. As crazy as it sounds, Roy was challenged to a pistol-shooting match while on horseback. And no, I've never heard of such a dual.

When Roy was offered his choice of targets, he decided that the two men should shoot at each other. The duel is said to have taken place on February 24th, 1852. After the smoke cleared, Collins was wounded in his right arm and Roy Bean was said to be unscathed. But though that was the case, immediately both men were arrested. And again, as crazy as it sounds, both Collins and Roy were charged with assault with the intent to commit murder.

If this all sounds like a comedy of sorts, well it gets better. It is said that Roy was young and supposedly a real lady's man. While I couldn't find one picture that proved that out, I'll just take the word of the sources that I've looked at. As for the pictures of the old man that we know as Judge Roy Bean, I'm sure they're not representative of a younger Roy Bean. I mean really, who among us looks like we did when we were in our early 20's before years of living an interesting live took it's toll. No one I know.

As for Roy Bean being a lady's man? Well, it's said that while he was in jail for the two months that he was there, he supposedly received all sorts of gifts including flowers, wine, cigars, and even food from admiring women in San Diego. One of his gifts were a dish of tamales. In the tamales were a couple of small knives.

Yes, I know that you can see where this is going. Roy used the small knives to dig his way out through the adobe walls of his cell. He escapes on April 17th, and flees to San Gabriel to be with his older brother Joshua. He actually goes to work for his brother as a bartender in The Headquarters Saloon. Later, after Joshua was ambushed and killed, Roy inherited his brother's saloon.

As for his stiff neck? No, he didn't get it in Texas after being hanged there. Fact is, it's actually the result of being left to hang in California.

The story goes that in 1854, Roy was courting a young Mexican woman who is said to have been kidnapped and forced into a marriage. Her kidnapping husband was a Mexican Army officer. Roy immediately challenged the man to a dual, and subsequently shoots the Mexican officer dead.

As luck would have it, the Mexican Army officer had friends who wanted to take revenge on Roy Bean. The story is that six of the dead officer's friends find Roy, ties his hands, and take him to a tree to be hanged. They put a noose around his neck while Roy is atop a horse. They then left him to hang.

The rest of the story is that the six men fired shots in the air and yell before they left, but the horse didn't stir. Hiding nearby and watching all of this is the bride of the Mexican officer. She watches the six men leave, then comes out from behind a tree and cuts Roy's ropes. From this, Roy Bean was left with a permanent scar from the rope burn around his neck. That's also how he obtained a permanent stiff neck.

Shortly after that, Roy left California and headed to New Mexico to live with his brother Sam again. Sam had actually been elected the first sheriff of Doña Ana County by then. Then in 1861, Sam and Roy opened up a store and saloon on Main Street in Pinos Altos in what is today Grant County, New Mexico.

At the outbreak of the Civil War, it's said that Roy joined the Confederate Army. In March of 1862, he was supposedly a part of the Confederate Army that was retreating to San Antonio, Texas, after the Battle of Glorieta Pass in New Mexico. He stayed in San Antonio after the war.

On October 28th, 1866, Roy Bean married 15 year-old Virginia Chavez. During their marriage, they had four children together. His family is said to have lived in "a poverty-stricken Mexican slum area called Beanville". He worked as a teamster, sold firewood, worked as a butcher, and even delivered milk. His milk delivery business suffered when it was found that he was putting creek water in the milk to stretch it and increase his profits. He might never had been found out if he had only strained the water first. What gave him away was when his customers started noticing minnows in the milk.

Bean was said to have acted very surprised when his customers brought that fact to his attention. In fact, so much so that he's known to have said, "By God, I'll have to stop them cows from drinking out of the creek."

As for those who say that he supposedly rustled cattle at that time, I haven't been able to find proof of that. But we do know that by the late 1870s, Roy was running a saloon right there in "Beanville". His saloon was doing OK, but not everything was above board. Because of that, there was trouble when someone didn't take to the watered down booze or the sketchy card games. In fact, there was so much trouble coming from his place that a neighboring store owner wanted him out of there so bad that she actually bought him out for $900 with the agreement that he leaves San Antonio.

Sometime during this time period, Roy and his wife adopted a son. But even the addition of another child wasn't enough to save their volatile marriage, so they divorced around 1880. Right after that, Roy left her and his children. Yes, without support, he left them and put San Antonio behind him. It's said to be Roy Bean's only marriage.

With the money from his Beanville saloon, Roy bought a tent, supplies, and anywhere from ten to fifteen barrels of whiskey. By early 1882, he used his tent, supplies, and barrels of whiskey to create a small saloon near the Pecos River. The tent city where this was taking place was called Vinegarroon.

It's said that the key to success for a business is location. Well because the railroad was push further West, the tent city of Vinegarroon is said to have had anywhere from 3,000 to 5,000 railroad works, some sources say there were bout 8,000 railroad workers there. All just within 20 miles of his saloon's location.

Back in 1881, the Southern Pacific Railroad decided to build the second transcontinental railroad and America's first year-round all-weather line. The route ran through Pecos County, which is today Val Verde County. The construction started in 1881 and was open by 1883. During the construction, Southern Pacific required a number of "work camps," many which later became towns all across that county.

While over a dozen of those camps were built, most simply disappeared when the route was completed. Vinegarroon is said to have been the largest camp. It was also the longest lasting camp. This is because those rail workers were working on the largest portion of the project which was the 1,425 foot Tunnel Number Two on the West side of the Pecos.

Vinegarroon was said to be "one of the wickedest tent villages the West had ever known." And if you want to know what Vinegarroon means, well I have no idea what language that comes from, but I do know that a Vinegarroon is a whip-tailed scorpion that's found in West Texas. The little stinkers are out at night and are said to give off a strong vinegar-like odor when they're messed with. Yes, they named the camp "Vinegarroon" after a scorpion that has a reputation of being disliked but mostly harmless. Imagine that.

So yes, at the time of the construction, Roy Bean was in Vinegarroon. He had opened a tent saloon which was one of at least twenty or more saloons in and around that area. Of course Bean opening a saloon was like attracting bees to honey. Problem of course is that some of those in Vinegarroon were not exactly upstanding citizens.

So now, if you're asking when do we get to the whole "Law West of the Pecos"? Well, we're coming to that. Because the nearest established law was the county seat about 300 miles away at Fort Stockton, there was little to no law in that part of the country. One source states that the distance between Vinegarron and Fort Stockton was "more than three-hundred miles away by horseback, six-hundred for a round trip, and twelve days on foot to convey prisoners."

The story goes that a group of Texas Rangers asked that a local jurisdiction be set up in Vinegaroon. One Texas Rangers supposedly described those West of the Pecos as being "the worst lot of roughs, gamblers, robbers and pickpockets I ever saw."

On August 2nd, 1882, the Pecos County commissioners gathered at Fort Stockton to appoint a Justice of the Peace to help establish law and order in the Pecos River area of Southwest Texas. The request by the Texas Rangers was answered when Roy Been was appointed "Justice of the Peace" for what became Precinct 6 of Pecos County.

Now you're probably wondering, why choose Roy Bean? Well, though Bean was a heavy drinker and known to be a somewhat shady character, he came highly recommended by Texas Rangers who felt that he "had what it would take" to bring the law and order "West of the Pecos."

About two months later, Texas Rangers brought in Joe Bell to be tried on July 25th, 1882. That was the first time someone in violation of the law was brought in front of Judge Roy Bean. Joe Bell was tried for stealing. Judge Bean fined and released him.

It didn't take too long for Bean to turn his tent saloon into a "part time courtroom." After that he began calling himself, "Judge Roy Bean, the Law West of the Pecos." He did use state statues to make his rulings. In fact, he was known to rely on "The 1879 Edition of the Revised Statutes of Texas." And believe it or not, he only used "The 1879 Edition of the Revised Statutes of Texas." It's actually said that when he'd get new or revised law books in, he used them for "kindling."

As for the perks of his being the only "Law West of the Pecos"? Well, having the law not apply to him was a perk. For example, it's said one of his first "acts as a justice of the peace" was to shoot up the tent saloon of a "Jewish" competitor.

Also, another perk was to make up the rules as he went along. For example, it's said that he did not allow for hung juries to take place or for appeals to be made. Jurors were his bar cronies and they were expected to buy drinks during a court recess.

Then there's the perk of being able to make rulings as you please, and he was definitely known for his strange rulings. For example, after an Irish railroad worker by the name of Paddy O'Rourke was arrested for shooting a Chinese laborer, about 200 very angry rail workers showed up. The 200 very angry and most likely drunk men threatened to lynch Judge Roy Bean if he did not set Paddy O'Rourke free.

One story on this incident says that he poured through his law book before rendering a decision. Another story is that he looked outside and saw over 200 very angry rail workers and had a drink. Either way, the Judge ruled that, "homicide was the killing of a human being; however, he could find no law against killing a Chinaman". With that, Judge Bean then simply dismissed the case.

Now, let me just say this on that. I read an article write in 1986 calling Judge Roy Bean a "bigot" because of that "ruling." I have to say that I always laugh at Monday Morning Quarterbacks who think they know what they would have done in a similar situation. Some make me wonder if they would have rather he be hanged?

As for Vinegarroon, it folded by December of 1882 when railroad construction had moved further West. When that happened Bean moved his courtroom and saloon to either Strawbridge or Sanderson, and then to Eagle's Nest about 20 miles West of the Pecos River. Eagle's Nest will later become the town of Langtry. And to his credit, about that time was when he wired his children to live with him. I don't know how many joined him, but it's said that his son Sam joined him in Langtry.

Now, here's something to think about. By moving away from Vinegarron, Judge Roy Bean effectively left Precinct 6 which was the area of his jurisdiction as "Justice of the Peace." But despite his move, he continued to represent himself as a Judge and "Law West of the Pecos". In fact, the sign over the entrance of his saloon in Eagle's Nest plainly stated that he was the "Law West of the Pecos."

Southern Pacific railroad completed that line on January 12th, 1883. The completion of the route was celebrated by driving a special solid silver spike into the last tie. It's said that Judge Roy Bean told a story about how he tried stealing that silver spike as soon as everyone was gone, but someone else got there first. His yarn was just that, a yarn. Fact is, a railroad official had actually taken the spike as a souvenir for Southern Pacific railroad. Also, the last tie was said to have been cut up into small pieces after the spike was driven. The pieces were handed out as souvenir gifts to the official guests there.

As for the Eagle's Nest, that site was soon renamed Langtry. And no, it was not named after the well-known British stage actress Lillie Langtry as many believe it was. It was actually named after George Langtry who was a Southern Pacific railroad engineer and foreman. He was known to have supervised the Chinese rail workers in that area.

Bean actually arrived in Langtry right after completion of the route, but when it was still Eagle's Nest. He went about setting up a tent saloon there on Southern Pacific land. There is a story that tells about how the original owner of the land ran a saloon there as well. He sold that land which was 640 acres to Southern Pacific railroad. He supposedly sold it to the railroad on the condition that no part of the land could ever be sold or leased to Roy Bean.

The rest of that story says that Paddy O'Rourke, the Irish rail worker who went in front of Bean over shooting that Chinese laborer, had told the Judge to use the railroad right-of-way because it was not supposedly covered by the contract between the old owner and the railroad. With that, Judge Roy Bean built his famous saloon right there at that spot.

As most of us know, it is a wooden structure, which Bean called "The Jersey Lilly" named after Lillie Langtry. So why "The Jersey Lilly" you ask since she was British? Well, she was a native of Jersey which is officially known as the "Bailiwick of Jersey" which sits off of France but belongs to Great Britain. As for her being related to Southern Pacific's George Langtry, no she wasn't.

As for Judge Bean holding court there, he did use the saloon as his courthouse as both a Justice of the Peace and as a Notary Public. As for his strange way of doing things, since Langtry did not have a jail, people awaiting trial or serving time were chained to the only tree in Langtry at the time. Another quirk is that all cases were settled by fines. And by the way, his court did not give change. So if he fined someone $18 and the person handed over a $20 gold piece expecting change back, Bean was know to immediately amend his decision "Make that $20, by God, that's my ruling!"

As for minor offenses, the "fine" was usually reduced to the defendant buying a round of drinks for the judge, jury, and others there. And yes, that may run $2 dollars. If a person could not pay a fine, Bean was known to have them serve their time by being staked out in the sun for a day or two. The other option to that was to use a prisoner to do public works in Langtry. This worked well for people who needed to work off their fines.

As for fines collected, Bean refused to send the State of Texas any part of the fines. Instead, he kept all of the money. Though he is said to have enjoyed his tough reputation, he actually sounds like a very kind man in many respects. For example, it's said that he took most of the fines and much of the property that he collected and simply gave it to the poor in the area. He did that without it being known that it came from him. And yes, it's said that he even took funds that were collected at "The Jersey Lilly" and used those funds to buy needed medicine for the sick and the poor in and around Langtry. Friends, that's not what a badman does.

And while many folks know about his famously fining a dead man $40 which was the exact amount that in the dead man's pockets, I can't help but wonder how many people know that he spent that $40 on the man' casket, headstone, and to pay the gravediggers for their labor. In that incident, the only thing Judge Bean did keep was the man's gun. The Judge is said to have used it as a gavel.

As for the fines that were never turned into the State of Texas, it's said that the Governor of Texas received a number of complaints about how no funds ever came from Bean's court. The Governor is said to have written the Judge about it. The reply from Judge Bean is as follows: "Governor, you run things there in Austin and I'll run things here. My court never cost the State any money." Supposedly the Governor of Texas never bothered him again about the matter.

As for his leniency, while horse thieves who were often sentenced to hang in other jurisdictions, in his court they were always let go with the provision that they return the stolen horse to its rightful owner. And as for sentencing an offender to State Prison, he never did that.

As for being a "Hanging Judge"? From what I can tell, he has been confused with Judge Parker of Fort Smith who was certainly known as the "Hanging Judge" in his day. As for Judge Roy Bean having hanged offenders? One source says that Judge Roy Bean sentenced two men to hang but one of them escaped. Other sources say he never hanged anyone.

Now that's not to say that he didn't "stage" hangings. Yes, he "staged" hangings. From what I've read, Judge Bean would actually have his cronies literally recite a prepared script when they'd stage a hanging. With the hopes that all there were still sober enough to remember what their lines were, they would usually go about the whole thing as a sort of drama and get into an argument about something or other. All while turning their backs to the prisoner being "hanged". With their backs turned, and time ticking away, a prisoner would take their supposed distraction as a chance to escape the hangman's noose. It was all designed to scare criminals. And yes, it's said that when given that "second-chance" to live a clean life, a young wannabe outlaw would change his ways.

As for Mondays, yes Judge Roy Bean did in fact do a "wholesale" clearing of his docket. A sample case is said to be: "It is the judgment of this court that you are hereby tried and convicted of illegally and unlawfully committing certain grave offenses against the peace and dignity of the State of Texas, particularly in my bailiwick, to-wit: drunk and disorderly, and being the Law West of the Pecos, I fine you $2.00 - now get the hell out of here and never show yourself in this court again. Next case!..."

Although only district courts were legally allowed to grant divorces, Bean did so anyway, and he pocketed the $10 for each divorce. He charged $5 for weddings. He'd end all wedding ceremonies with "and may God have mercy on your souls" as if they were the condemned.

There is a story of how a district attorney from Del Rio went to Langtry to inform Judge Bean that it was not legal for him to grant divorces. Bean is said to have replied that if he could marry them, then he could "fix his mistakes." The rest of that story talks about how that district attorney wouldn't let the matter lay and pushed it. Judge Bean is said to have gotten the district attorney in a poker game where he lost $230 to the Judge. Judge Bean told the district attorney that he'd forgive the debt on the condition that the subject of granting divorces never came up again. Supposedly, it never did.

Even though he was defeated for re-election in 1886, he was appointed again to be the Justice of the Peace of a new precinct that was newly created in the county in 1887. He served as a Judge for another ten years, until 1896. After that, it's said that he kept on dispensing justice. In fact, after that defeat in 1896, it's said that "he refused to surrender his seal and law book and continued to try all cases north of the tracks".

That same year, on February 21st, 1896, Bean was responsible for organizing a World Championship Boxing match between Bob Fitzsimmons and Peter Maher. Held near Langtry, Texas, in Coahuila, Mexico, Judge Roy Bean was responsible for making that fight happen. Because boxing matches were illegal in both Texas and Mexico, the Judge held the event on an island in the Rio Grande.

The fight was billed as a World Heavyweight title bout for the National Police Gazette Championship belt. Spectators were actually brought in by a special train. Once there, they crossed a footbridge that was specially constructed to allow access to the sandbar. It's said that alcohol flowed and wagers were made. The fight itself lasted only 1 minute and 35 seconds, and was won by Fitzsimmons. The sport reporters hailed the Judge for thumbing his nose at the Texas Rangers and Mexican authorities by holding the fight on a sandbar in the Rio Grande river. His fame was spread nationwide.

Judge Roy Bean died after a night of heavy drinking on March 16th, 1903. He returned from San Antonio at 10 a.m., and he died at 10:03 that night. He and a son Sam are interred at the Whitehead Memorial Museum in Del Rio. Some sources say the Judge was 77, while others say he was already 78 years old when he died.

As for Lillie Langtry, she visited "The Jersey Lilly". She stated so in her autobiography. She said she did in fact visit there shortly after Judge Bean's death. She did so because of the admiration that she found in the letters that he wrote to her. I believe she also visited Langtry because she wanted to meet one of the best that the American West had to offer.

All in all, he was tough and resilient. He lived by a code and expected others to do the same. He was as just and practical as any human could have been expected to be for the times he lived in.

He was in many ways, the perfect example of the rugged individualist that the American West needed. He took the worse that nature and the criminal world had to offer in the Old West, and stood tall against both.

After reading about him, I found him not just a saloon-keeper and Justice of the Peace. He really was "The Law West of the Pecos". He came highly recommended by Texas Rangers for a reason. He really did have what it would take to bring law and order West of the Pecos. They felt that way for a reason, and I understand why they felt that way. Roy Bean had what it took to do the job.

Because my friend Les Kinsey asked me to look into the Judge, I've actually been working on this for a couple of years now. I'd like to say that I'm sorry for this piece being so long, but I'm not because there was just so much to the man. And yes, there is a lot of stories about him that I left out.

And there's something else about this piece that you my readers need to know, though I work real hard to stay impartial and unbiased when reporting on a historical figure, there were aspects of Judge Roy Bean that I just admire. I found a side of him that goes against the myth and lends more to why he is an American legend, nevertheless a Texas legend.

In the Marine Corps, I was taught a fundamental rule of life, "Adapt, Improvise, Overcome." I see the Judge as doing just that in a West that was rapidly changing. I see that in a brave man who did not back down from a duel, a man who dispatched a Mexican bandit to where he needed to go, a good man who stood for the law in a place that was lawless before he came along.

And yes, I'm still laughing at minnows in the milk.

Tom Correa

Monday, September 11, 2017

Wisconsin Native Americans Ate Their Enemies?

Dear Friends,

I'm sure it's obvious that I love history. More specifically I love American History. I love reading about cowboys, cattle drives, and settlers coming West. I love researching outlaws and lawmen, gold strikes, silver strikes, cattle towns, boom towns, wagon trains, and learning more about ships making the journey around the horn. I love reading about the Civil War, slavery, and I love researching Indentured Servants since my grandfather was just that. I love researching Native American tribes, especially about the way they lived pre-European contact .

I love visiting historic sites. I love visiting Civil War battlefields, ghost towns, old towns, and hardly there towns. I love whaling ships, clipper ships, and old steamboats. I love old graveyards, old gravestones out in some pasture in the middle of nowhere or in some forgotten cemetery, inscriptions about loved ones long forgotten, and I love the places that only locals know about.

I loved seeing the wagon ruts of the Oregon Trail that are still visible near a rest stop in Idaho.I loved walking on the boardwalks of Virginia City, Nevada, and touching the Red Dog Saloon doors in Juneau, Alaska. I love knowing that I'm visiting the same places where others lived and worked back when America was young and not so full of stifling rules.

Yes indeed, I love stopping at places where I've only read about, and places that I didn't know existed. I love confirming stories about the history of the Old West, but also about other eras in our history. And yes, I love being shocked by what I didn't know. Or more honestly, being surprised at what I should have been taught in school but wasn't. I love learning how truly full of shit Hollywood truly is, and wonder why can't they get it right since the real story is right there in front of them?

Yes, I'm the guy that loves reading road markers. I'm that guy who sees a sign that says to this or that point of interest and takes it. In fact, I was going through some of my old notes from my travels and found something that may interest you.

It has to do with a historic site that I found just outside of Madison, Wisconsin, if I remember right. That place is the Aztalan State Park. It is about 172 acres and is the site of an ancient Native American Indian village. An ancient village that existed before Europeans ever stepped foot on the North American continent.   

Back in 1836, an American settler came across a number of earthen mounds on the west bank of the Crawfish River. The mounds are part of what was the actual village. The village is said to have had anywhere from 500 to a thousand or more Native Americans of the Mississippian culture there. The village is believe to have flourished from around the year 900 AD to about 1300 when they just disappeared. 

Yes, their disappearance is just one of a number of mysteries related to that site. As for the people who vanished before any contact with Europeans, no one knows why they vanished suddenly. While one mystery has to do with the question as to why it's original inhabitants suddenly disappeared, another has to do with the stockade walls that they built to keep out other tribes? Was it breached somehow by enemy Native American tribes? Was it finally breached and were they slaughtered?
Of course if that were the case, then why hasn't the bones of the original inhabitants been found there?

Another mystery is why build the mounds? We do know that the people who lived there built those earthen mounds, which resemble the work of the Aztecs -- hence the name given to that area. Over time, since no one was interested in maintaining the mounds or the remnants of the stockade walls that surrounded the area, sadly it was plowed over for farming. In the process of being plowed over, a number of the mounds were actually leveled. Today, two of the three large ceremonial mounds are still intact. 

It is said that the first really formal archaeological excavation of Aztalan was in 1919. That excavation established the actual perimeter of the stockade and that it had watch towers. It was then that they also found evidence their homes, along with pottery pieces, tools, and even weapons. 

Aztalan 1850 Map
Researchers also found fire pits and what is believed to be piles of refuse. In those areas researchers found butchered and burned human bones, including the heads of men, women, and children. They ascertained that people who inhabited that area had actually eaten people.

But actually, it is said that soon after its discovery in 1836, it was already determined back then that the mounds were used for religious ceremonies which included human sacrifice. And that leads us to the final mystery of why they ate their enemies?

Those human sacrifices are said to have been part of the cannibalism of that tribe. But since food is said to have been abundant there, why resort to cannibalism? Why eat your enemies? 

Historian David Scheimann wrote, "Of all the North American Indian tribes, the seventeenth-century Iroquois are the most renowned for their cruelty towards other human beings. Scholars know that they ruthlessly tortured war prisoners and that they were cannibals; in the Algonquin tongue the word Mohawk actually means 'flesh-eater.' There is even a story that the Indians in neighboring Iroquois territory would flee their homes upon sight of just a small band of Mohawks. Ironically, the Iroquois were not alone in these practices. There is ample evidence that most, if not all, of the Indians of northeastern America engaged in cannibalism and torture -- there is documentation of the Huron, Neutral, and Algonquin tribes each exhibiting the same behavior."

Robert Birmingham, a professor of anthropology at University of Wisconsin in Waukesha, wrote a book entitled "Aztalan: Mysteries of an Ancient Indian Town", published in 2006.

He is quoted as saying, "Aztalan was the northern outpost of a great civilization comparable to other great early civilizations in the world. We call them the Mississippians; they rose after AD 1000 and had, at its center, the first city in what is now the United States – that’s Cahokia, in present-day Illinois. It was a very large city and had a society that was very complex. It was similar to Mayan cities in Mexico. They built large earthen mounds as platforms for important buildings. The major mound at Cahokia, where the ruler probably lived, is 100 feet high and greater in volume than the Great Pyramid of Egypt, though built of earth."

Birmingham said those there were a farming society. The Aztalan village is said to have lasted anywhere from 100 to 150 years. It is said that around the year 1200, the Mississippian civilization eventually collapsed in the Midwest for unknown reasons.

War with other tribes is thought to be a factor in their disappearance. Birmingham says, "The Mississippian culture was aggressive and expanding. Aztalan is one of most heavily fortified sites in the archaeological record of Eastern North America."

Since we know human remains were found at the site in 1919, what are Birmingham's thoughts about their cannibalism and if it was all about "ritual cannibalism"? Well Birmingham says those remains "Have been analyzed and don’t fit the pattern of cannibalism, at least for food." 

So I have to wonder what's it all about if not for food? Why eat your enemies if there was available sources of food and the inhabitants were not starving? Why was that a Native American trait of so many tribes?

Birmingham explained that eating others, particularly your enemies, is an ancient consequence of warfare that is certainly not restricted to Native American Indians. He said, "The taking of trophy heads, cutting up the bones of your enemies and eating them ritually -- taking the power of your enemies -- is well-documented in many cultures. In Wisconsin, the Ho-Chunks themselves recite a story in which they greeted some Illinois people who were potential enemies by killing them, putting them in a pot, then boiling and eating them. It was not for food, but to show great disdain."

He thinks that the Mississippians at Aztalan co-existed fine with some Woodland tribes, but others may have been seen as trespassing. 

While that's the reason for the walls and for the wars, I can't help but wonder if the idea of eating one's enemy to show disdain is too easy an answer and there's more to it. My skepticism comes from the fact that while I see torturing an enemy as an act of vengeance, I've read where eating of one's enemy was actually a religious ritual of many Native American tribes. 

So all in all, the tribes who practiced ritual cannibalism did not so for food. Instead it was more about their belief in the supernatural powers held within the souls of their enemies. A power that they wanted to harness by eating their enemies. Imagine that.    

Tom Correa

Sunday, September 10, 2017

How Many Slaves Landed in the U.S.?

Slave Ship
The following comes from an article entitled How Many Slaves Landed in the U.S.?

Amazing Fact About the Negro No. 1: How many Africans were taken to the United States during the entire history of the slave trade?

Perhaps you, like me, were raised essentially to think of the slave experience primarily in terms of our black ancestors here in the United States. In other words, slavery was primarily about us, right, from Crispus Attucks and Phillis Wheatley, Benjamin Banneker and Richard Allen, all the way to Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth and Frederick Douglass. Think of this as an instance of what we might think of as African-American exceptionalism. (In other words, if it's in "the black Experience," it's got to be about black Americans.) Well, think again.

The most comprehensive analysis of shipping records over the course of the slave trade is the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, edited by professors David Eltis and David Richardson. (While the editors are careful to say that all of their figures are estimates, I believe that they are the best estimates that we have, the proverbial "gold standard" in the field of the study of the slave trade.)

Between 1525 and 1866, in the entire history of the slave trade to the New World, according to the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, 12.5 million Africans were shipped to the New World. 10.7 million survived the dreaded Middle Passage, disembarking in North America, the Caribbean and South America.

And how many of these 10.7 million Africans were shipped directly to North America? Only about 388,000. That's right: a tiny percentage.

In fact, the overwhelming percentage of the African slaves were shipped directly to the Caribbean and South America; Brazil received 4.86 million Africans alone! Some scholars estimate that another 60,000 to 70,000 Africans ended up in the United States after touching down in the Caribbean first, so that would bring the total to approximately 450,000 Africans who arrived in the United States over the course of the slave trade.

Incredibly, most of the 42 million members of the African-American community descend from this tiny group of less than half a million Africans. And I, for one, find this amazing.

By the way, how did historian Joel A. Rogers — writer of the 1934 book 100 Amazing Facts About the Negro With Complete Proof, and to whom this series is an homage—do on this question? Well, incredibly, in his "Amazing Fact #30," Rogers says, "About 12,000,000 Negroes were brought to the New World!" Not even W.E.B. Du Bois got this close to the most accurate count of the number of Africans shipped across the Atlantic in the slave trade.

-- end of article written by Henry Louis Gates, Jr.

The above article was written for PBS. It was originally posted on The Root, a website created by Professor Gates and others. If Gates name sounds familiar, it should. In 2009, after a problem with the police at his home, the local police detained Gates.

President Obama called the police having to detain Gates, "a stupid act." The incident resulted in what the media called a "Beer Summit" between Gates, the responding police officer, and President Obama. Professor Gates is a personal friend of former president Obama.

While Gates's numbers are correct, there are a few errors regarding dates of what took place. One huge error regarding this article is its title. How Many Slaves Landed in the U.S.?

From 1655 to 1783, slaves were not brought to the United States. Fact is, during that time period, the United States did not exist. The United States only became a sovereign nation when we officially won our independence from England in 1783 with the Treaty of Paris. So in reality, slaves were legally transported to the United States for only a 25 year period. That was from 1783, when we separated from Great Britain, to 1808 when U.S. law made it illegal to import slaves into the United States.

A second error is that slavery officially ended in the United States in 1865 and not 1866. A third error is his reporting that the entire era of the African slave trade took place from 1525 and 1866. We need to make a distinction between the lawful importation of slaves versus the illegal importation of slaves from Africa. And of course, when did it really start.

The African slave trade started with African chiefs selling their own people to whites in 1516. But it should be noted that the first slave ship from Africa did not arrive in North American continent until 1655. And as for the legal importation of slaves to North America, that took place from 1655 to 1808. It was illegal to import slaves to the United States from 1808 to 1865, just as it is today.

Of the 388,000 slaves that were landed in North America between 1655 and 1865, there were 93,185 that were brought to the United States after we declared our independence from England. Those 93,185 were shipped here from 1783 to 1865.

Breaking it down further, we can see that during the 25 years from 1783 to 1808 when President Thomas Jefferson banned the import of slaves to the United States, there were 45,846 slaves brought to the United States legally. From 1808 to 1865 when the slave trade was illegal in the U.S., there were 47,339 slaves smuggled into the United States in violation of Federal law.

One other point, of the 10.7 million slaves who actually survived being shipped west across the Atlantic Ocean, only about 388,000 were off-loaded in North America. Yes, that's less than 5% of the original 12 million slaves brought from Africa to the Americas. As Gates stated in his article, "Only about 388,000. That's right: a tiny percentage." 

These numbers are not mine. I didn't pulled them out of thin air. These numbers come from Professor Gates's source, The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database.

Basic math tells us that the remaining 10.3 million of those shipped west across the Atlantic Ocean, the 95% rest that didn't land in North America, were actually off-loaded in the Caribbean and South America. This proves that the great majority of African slaves were not brought to the United States of America, or the North American continent. In reality, most all were shipped to South America to sugar colonies in the Caribbean and Brazil.

What may surprised many is that slaves were in huge demand in South America and the Caribbean. In fact, much of the slave trade in the United States had to do with American slavers buying and selling slaves to ship out of the United States -- destined for Brazil and other Latin America countries.
Tom Correa

Wednesday, September 6, 2017

Liberals Have Zero Respect For Others

Dear Friends,

I was asked to pull my last post from a group that I belong to on Facebook because it's discussion was pulled off topic.

My last article was about child slave labor in the North during the Civil War. The point of my article had completely gone over the heads of some Liberals who branded it a "racist post".

The point is regarding child slave labor during the Civil War in the North. It is about the hypocrisy of those in the North who were against slavery in the South, but were OK with it taking place in the factories and the mines in the North.

Their hypocrisy is in regards to what offended them. It was selective at best. While they were rightfully offended by blacks in chains, they were hypocrites in that they should not have turned a blind eye to the child slave labor practices that were in fact taking place around them in the North at the same time.

Those labor practices, while no longer applied to blacks, were certainly applied to children until it stopped in the late 1930s. And the only reason it stopped is that adults needed jobs. Adults saw children as taking jobs away from adults during the Great Depression, and that's when it stopped.

So how is it a racist post? Well one Liberal wrote to me and put it this way, it "detracts from the suffering of blacks". Imagine just how dumb you have to be to say such a thing. Talking about child slave labor in the North, detracts from the suffering of blacks in the South? Is that dumb or what!  

Of course, from a Facebook discussion and the comments that I've recieved, it's very apparent that the name callers and the holier-than-thous on the Left refuse to allow anyone else to have an opinion of any sort. Especially an opinion that is polar opposite to their own.   

An opinion, the dictionary defines as "a view or judgment formed about something, not necessarily based on fact or knowledge." Opinion is synonymous with belief, judgment, thoughts, way of thinking, mind, point of view, viewpoint, outlook, attitude, stance, position, perspective, persuasion, standpoint.

Instead of respecting the opinions of others, Liberals always resort to name calling and threats instead of discussion. I'm not talking about Republicans or Democrats who respect each other. I'm talking about Liberals who hate for the sake of hating.

When Obama was in office, I wrote about his inept job performance, his expensive vacations, the over-regulation, the wasteful spending, the divisiveness of President Obama. And yes, I was called a racist. One person actually wrote to tell me that I can't criticize him because he is black. Another jerk actually said that it's OK to criticize a white president, but not Obama because he's black. Talk about racist.

When I wrote about my favorite quote from Rev. Martin Luther King Jr, when he said, "I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character," I was called a racist because I said that I judged Obama by the content of his character and not the color of his skin.

Friends, I really believe that I could have written about how I like white peaches and be called a racist. No, that wouldn't have surprised me.

When I talked about the statue of Robert E. Lee and how 200 Confederate troops protected the town of Charlottesville from being burned to the ground by 1,600 Union troops under the command of General George Armstrong Custer, I was called a racist. I said that I really believe that we don't know the exact motivations of those who erected those statues after the Civil War. And because I said that, I was called a racist. I said that I believed some of those statues were put up to salute those defenders of towns and cities in the South during the Civil War. Yes, I was called a racist. 

Friends, the term racist is losing it's meaning. And no, I have no idea what they call a person who is really and truly a racist. When everything can be labeled racist, the term racist means squat.  

As for the Liberals who attack my blog, both on Facebook and here in the comment section? They don't like my research, they don't like my sources, then they resort to personal attacks after I've given them my sources or the links to some of my research material.

Of course, they don't like the fact that I have friends who work as Wikipedia contributors, friends who are historians of merit, friends who have spent their lives researching history. They don't like that I have friends who know guns even better than I do, friends who are ranchers who I've helped over the years, friends who raise and breed horses.  

They don't understand that I pick the brains of my friends for information if I need to. They do help me with finding information whether it's about cattle or horses or history.

It amazes me that Liberals don't understand that people can talk about all sorts of things and actually learn from each other. They refuse to understand that during the course of a conversation, that people can have different views than their own and actually learn from each other. Yes, I repeat myself because I'm amazed that Liberals are so narrow minded and shallow, so filled with hate for others who don't think like them.

If they believe that the cause of the Civil War was ONLY slavery, then fine. If they believe everything that Hollywood and Left has to say about how things were in the Old West, that's fine as well. So why not take their narrow minded points of view somewhere else! Why bother coming here just to put in their political spin and pick arguments is beyond me.

So now, I want to known why do they stop here? Why bother reading what I have to offer if it angers them so much? Why bother reading and writing comments filled with swearing and hate? Comments that I will not allow posted on my blog. 

Why not just start their own blogs? Why not open another Liberal blog where they can put out more hate and politically correct crap? Why not cater to fellow hate mongers on the Left?

My advice is simple, if you want to make your voice heard, check out the New York Times Facebook page. Go to some other venue with a giant readership. Go somewhere where your hate and shit disturbing is appreciated. 

I have a small blog that I use to talk about things that interest me. Things that I hope others find interesting. And since I've visited a great number of different places around the country, I want to share the true stories about the history that I find amazing. Yes, things that Liberals refuse to even consider in the slightest. 

They call themselves "progressives," but that's a joke! They are stuck looking at things in their politically correct hate filled minds. They refuse to expand their horizons and see things with fresh eyes. They have a total distaste for thinking for themselves. They accept the standard line even if it is wrong. And yes, from my experience with them, especially lately, I find they refuse to allow any other way of looking at things to enter their minds. But worse, they want us to shut up and not speak our minds.

And while this is a rant, I may as well tell you what really bothers me. It is their hate. They venomously hate others who try to look at things differently then the way they do. Because I'm not into their hate, I ask only this, if someone doesn't like what I post, instead of coming here with a political agenda, just go away. 

I would rather have readers that are open to thinking about things that they may not have considered, right or wrong, off base or not. Readers who are not tied to political correctness. Readers who want to explore history, talk about things that some people want covered up, maybe even learn something that wasn't known before. As the saying goes, the possibilities are endless. 

For the Liberals who sends me hate mail and messages about how screwed up I am, for you Democrats who don't want me to write about the Civil War for fear of "stirring the pot," go somewhere else. 

There are all sorts of Liberal blogs out there that preach nothing but hate and political correctness. If you are a Liberal, a person who hates others who do not think the way you do, you will be more at home there. Those blogs are filled with people who also can't think for themselves and simply drink the Kool-Aid. 

Tom Correa

Tuesday, September 5, 2017

The Civil War: Did The North Use Slave Labor?

Since I've now been forced to be blunt about the point of this article, I can tell you now that it is about child slave labor in the North during the Civil War. Because of discussions where people are trying to turn this article into something that it is not, allow me to also say that this piece is about the hypocrisy of those in the North who were against slavery in the South but were not bothered by the child slave labor going on around them.

So now, let's talk about the slave labor that took place in extremely large numbers in the North during the Civil War. We've all heard of the "Industrial Might" of the Northern states during the Civil War compared to the South's agricultural base. So now let's talk about the child slave labor behind that "industrial Might" in the North. Yes, let's talk about a subject that no one seems to talk about. Let's talk about the North's use of slave labor in the form of forced child labor. Let's talk about the forced child labor that accounted for 45% to 55% of all of the labor used in the North during the Civil War.

No one talks about who worked in the factories in the North. No one talks about the huge percentage of child labor that took place in those factories. No one talks about how the North used child slave labor before, during, and after the Civil War. No one talks about how the emancipation of children did not come about until decades after black slaves in the South experienced emancipation.

Let's point to the fact that young children routinely worked in the United States legally for many years before and after we became a nation. Some have indicated that black slave labor in the South does not compare to child slave labor in the North because the children were not property as the blacks were. Though that was the reality of black slaves, when looking at the way children in the factories and in mines were treated, one has to ask if the children were treated the same or worse than property?

Children were enslaved, they were separated from their families, they were certainly exposed to serious hazards and health risks, and they were left to fend for themselves. Child labor abuses were plentiful during the Industrial Revolution from 1820 to 1870. But it did not end in 1870. It continued for another 60 years.

Industrialization attracted workers and their families. Many relocated from farms and rural areas to cities to do factory work. In factories and mines, children were actually preferred by businesses because owners saw children as more manageable, a lot cheaper, and unwilling to strike.

Our children worked in mines, manufacturing plants, factories of all sorts, textiles plants, agriculture in a number of ways including harvests, and canneries all over the North. And yes, they were newsboys, peddlers, messengers, and bootblacks. The lucky ones swept the trash and filth from city streets, stood for hours on street corners pushing newspapers, and delivered messages for pennies. Others worked in the mines and coughed up coal dust all through a 10 to 12 hour shift in the heat of the dark. Others sweat to the point of passing out while tending factory furnaces. 

On the overall child laborers were the sons and daughters of poor parents, and of course recent immigrants who depended on their children’s measly wages to survive. They were the children of industry and large cities in the North during the Civil War. What blacks slaves were to the South, they were to the North. 

Fact is forms of child labor, including indentured servitude and child slavery, have existed throughout our history. It actually predates our independence. Some were lucky and were treated easier than others. Others were treated as property.

Fact is, we can trace child slave labor back to before the United States was founded in 1776. It's true, there was child slave labor in the 18th century. From farms to factories, young children were used as laborers. 

As British colonies, long before our independence, English laws allowed for children to work in everything from farms to manufacturing. By 1833, when the British outlawed black slaves, child slavery in the form of indentured servants and forced child labor was common place in England. 

Of course, American colonial laws modeled their laws after British laws. And yes, those laws forced many children into workhouses, factories, and into mines. In fact, those laws allowed for orphan boys to be placed into apprenticeships in trades. Orphan girls were sent into homes to do domestic work, work in laundries, and of course work in sweatshops. 

After we broke away from England, American industry kept up the practice and sought out children to use in facilities through out the former colonies. Child labor served Alexander Hamilton's vision of America. He saw child labor as providing increased labor to support industry. In accordance with this vision, when Alexander Hamilton was Secretary of the Treasury, he actually stated in a 1791 report on manufacturing, "children who would otherwise be idle could become a source of cheap labor." Around the same time, a national newsweekly printed their opinion stating that "factory work was not for able-bodied men, but rather better done by little girls from six to twelve years old."

Besides advertisements seeking children from the ages of 8 to 12 to work in a cotton mills in the North, it's said that by 1820 children made up more than 40 percent of the mill employees in at least three New England states. So while it is said that the manufacturing industry that grew following the Civil War required children as young as 8 years old, we should recognize that forced child labor in factories, in retail stores, on the streets, on farms, in mines, and elsewhere, took place long before the Civil War.

In fact, this was so much the case, that in 1842, there were a few Northern states that begin to limit a child’s work day. Massachusetts lowered a child’s work day from 14 hours to 10 hours, but most of laws were not enforced. And Massachusetts was not the only state to use forced child labor, child slavery, in the industrial North during the Civil War.

It is a fact that women and children dominated pre-Civil War manufacturing in the North. It is a fact that the number of children used in the North actually increased during the Civil War because of the need for everything from uniforms, to shoes and belts, hats and hardware. Yes, the beans, bullets, and bandages that keep an Army functioning.

So please make no mistake about it, while the South had black slavery that they considered property, the North had child slavery that they considered property. Fact is, in the North, children replaced the need for adults as many Northern men were pressed into service in the Union Army.

And while the North was afraid of the influx of freed slaves fleeing the South, Northerners in fact re-enslaved many freed slave children just as they did the children of immigrants during the Civil War. It's true as the children of freed slaves in the North were treated the same as other children in that they worked 10, 12, or 14 hours a day and six days a week. And while those children were in essence re-enslaved through forced labor and apprenticeship agreements, they were bound to companies no differently than they were to their slave masters in the South.

In 1870, the first U.S. census report on child labor numbers accounted for 750,000 workers under the age of 13. These figures came mostly from Northern states. These numbers did not include children who worked for their families or on farms.

For many years, not much changed in the North pertaining to using forced child labor. But after the Civil War, forced child labor abuses became routine nation wide as more cities adopted the practice. And yes, the scams to get more children increased. For example, in New York City in the 1870s, there was a scam going around that had to do with Italians who secured employment for Italian immigrants. The scam was child slavery under the guise of apprenticeship.

The people responsible for that scam deceived Italian parents residing in Italy into willingly sending their children to America to begin an apprentice program. Once agreements were signed, then the children were shipped to America. At the docks, they met and immediately forced to work in horrible conditions. And as it was the case throughout the North for many years, if the children failed to comply then they were beaten and starved.

This was happening so much so that in 1873, just eight years after the Civil War, the New York Times stated, "The world has given up on stealing men from the African coast, only to kidnap children from Italy."

While forced child labor was pretty much restricted to the Union states during the Civil War, after the war it had became more and more common place throughout the nation. Southerners followed the example set by Northerners and filled the openings left by freed black slaves with that of women and children. And yes, forced child labor and apprenticeship agreements extended to businesses in the South after the war. 

It is said that freed slaves willingly exchanged the labor of their children for "training" provided by their former slave owners. Yes, after the Civil War, black freed slave parents forced their children into re-enslavement. Imagine that.

Slavery comes in a number of different forms, there is Forced Marriage, Domestic Servitude, Indentured Servants, Forces Labor, Bonded Labor, Child Labor, and Sex Trafficking. As for "chattel slavery"? Chattel slavery is the "owning" of human beings as property. They are bought, sold, given, and inherited. Since slaves in this context have no personal freedom or recognized rights to decide the direction of their own lives, isn't that comparable to what they did to children until the 1930s? 

The child slave market was filled by hiring others to find them and detain them. In some cases it was from orphanages, other times it was from a family that was destitute, they were lied to and held prisoner and even kidnapped. They were sold into bondage and stolen. They had no personal freedom or recognized rights, were beaten and starved, had bounties put on their heads if they escaped from where they were housed or worked, and were in some case shackled to machinery and given a coffee can to urinate in. To me, that's slavery. That is certainly not the life of a free person.

As for child labor laws, in 1904, Federal child labor reform laws began to take shape. But that didn't stop employers from putting children to work. In fact, by 1911, it is said that more than Two Million American children under the age of 14 were working 12 to 14 hour day for six days a week. 

And yes, well into the 1900s, children worked in unhealthful and hazardous conditions, and always for what was known as slave wages. As for unhealthful and hazardous conditions, even into the 1900s, young girls continued to work in mills and garment factories. They faced the danger of losing fingers or even a foot while standing on top of machines to change bobbins. They risked being scalped alive if their hair got caught in the machinery.

As for the children younger than 10 who were forced to work in the coal mines, they were known as breaker boys. In many instances they were smothered and crushed by piles of coal, or simply fell down a shaft. Breaker boys faced the threat of cave-ins, gas leaks, explosions, and other hazards that adult miners did. But let's be honest and talk about their slave wages as they made 10 times less than the adults who they worked beside. 

While black emancipation came about in 1863, it wasn't until 1938 that Federal regulations of child labor was achieved in the Fair Labor Standards Act. And while it did not emancipate children completely, at least it limited the minimum ages of employment and hours of work for children through Federal law.

The point of my article has gone completely over the heads of some folks. I've never condoned or tried to downplay the suffering of black slaves in the South. I have never ever tried to defend slavery of any sort, nor would I ever. I certainly would not defend slavery in South. This article in not about the slaves in the South. 

The point is regarding child slave labor during the Civil War in the North. It is about the hypocrisy of those in the North who were against slavery in the South, but were OK with what was taking place in the factories and the mines in the North.

Their hypocrisy is in regards to what offended them. It was selective at best. While they were rightfully offended by blacks in chains, they were hypocrites in that they should not have turned a blind eye to the child slave labor practices that were in fact taking place around them in the North at the same time.

Those labor practices, while no longer applied to blacks after emancipation, were certainly applied to children until it stopped in the late 1930s. And the only reason it stopped is that adults needed jobs. Adults saw children as taking jobs away from adults during the Great Depression, and that's when it stopped.

Tom Correa

Friday, September 1, 2017

The Death Of Bud Philpot 1881

Dear Friends, 

Since a reader has written to ask about him, here's what I know about the murder of stage driver Bud Philpot. I do know that his given name was Eli P. Philpott and that he as born on June 6th, 1853, in Calistoga, California. 

He was not yet 28 years of age, just a young man, when on March 15th, 1881, while working as a stage driver, he was ambushed and murdered about a mile and a half from Contention City, Arizona. The exact location of the incline where the robbers are said to have jumped out of the bushed from both sides of the road to ambush Bud Philpot is about 500 feet south of a stagecoach station that was known as Drew's Station. 

He worked for Kinnear & Company. The day that he was killed, that stagecoach carried $26,000 in Wells Fargo silver bullion. It should also be noted that besides stage driver Bud Philpot being killed, a passenger by the name of Pete Roerig was murdered during that attempted robbery.. 

On March 16th, 1881, The Tombstone Epitaph reported the following:

At about 11 o'clock last night, Marshal Williams received a telegram from Benson stating that the Kinnear & Company's coach, carrying Wells Fargo & Co.'s treasure, had been stopped near Contention and "Budd Philpott, the driver, killed and one passenger mortally wounded. Almost immediately afterward A.C. Cowan, Wells Fargo & Co.'s agent at Contention City, rode into this city, bringing a portion of the details of the affair. In a few minutes after his arrival, Williams, the Earp brothers, and several other brave, determined men were in the saddle, well armed, en route to the scene of the murderous affray.

From telegrams received from Benson at the Epitaph office, the following particulars were gathered.

As the stage was going up a small incline about 200 yards this side of Drew's Station and about a mile the other side of Contention City, a man stepped into the road from the east side and called out "Hold!" At the same moment a number of men--believed to have been eight--made their appearance, and a shot was fired from the same side of the road, instantly followed by another. One of these shots struck "Bud" Philpott, the driver, who fell heavily forward between the wheelers, carrying the reins with him. The horses immediately sprang into a dead run. Meanwhile, Bob Paul, Wells Fargo & Co.'s messenger, one of the bravest and coolest men who ever sat on a box seat, was ready with his gun and answered back shot for shot before the frightened horses had whirled the coach out of range.

It was fully a mile before the team could be brought to a stand, when it was discovered that one of the shots had mortally wounded a passenger on the coach named Peter Roerig. As soon as the coach could be stopped, Paul secured the reins and drove rapidly to Benson, and immediately started back for the scene of the murder. At Benson a telegraph was sent to the Epitaph office, stating that Roering could not possibly live. There were eight passengers on the coach, and they all united in praise of Mr. Paul's bravery and presence of mind.

At Drews Station the firing and rapid whirling by of the coach sent the men at the station to the scene of the tragedy, when they found poor "Bud" lying in the road, and by the bright moonlight saw the murderers fleeing rapidly from the place. A messenger was at once dispatched to inform agent Cowan of the circumstances, and within twenty minutes after the news arrived Mr. Cowan had dispatched nearly thirty well-armed volunteers after the scoundrels.

He then rode rapidly into Tombstone, when the party above mentioned started out to aid in the pursuit. This, with Mr. Paul's party, makes three bodies of determined men who are in hot chase, and Mr. Cowan stated to an Epitaph reporter that it is almost impossible for the murderous gang to escape, as the pursuers are close at their heels and have moonlight in their favor. Should the road-agents be caught they will meet with the short shift which they deserve.

"Bud", the murdered driver, whose real name is Eli P. Philpott, was one of the most widely known stage-drivers on the Coast. For years he has borne a high reputation as a skilful handler of the "ribbons," won on the principal stage lines in California, and during a year's residence in Arizona, most of the latter time in the employ of Kinnears (formerly Walker & Co.'s) line.

He will be sincerely mourned, not only by hosts of personal friends, but by thousands of passengers who have ridden on the box seat with him and been captivated by his simple manners and frank, manly ways. It was a rare treat to "make the trip" with him, for his memory was rich in reminiscences of the "old stage days" in California, and when he so willed he could keep a companion's attention riveted by his quaint, droll conversation.

He has a wife and young family at Calistoga, California, who had the tenderest place in his big heart. And now there is another little home in the world which has been desolated and despoiled by the ruthless bullet. There is something inexpressibly sad in the sudden death of such outwardly rough, but inwardly brave, true hearted men, and no better representation of this class could be found than the man whom the murderers last night sent unwarned to his last home. He was proud and fond of his team and the big new coach on which he met his death as if they were human, and the horses always seemed to know when "Bud" was at the other end of the lines.

-- end of Tombstone Epitaph article.

I've read where Bud Philpot was supposed to be the shotgun messenger when the attempted robbery took place. In reality, Bob Paul was supposed to have been the driver that day. It is speculated that at some point they changed positions for some unknown reason.

If we look at stage robberies during that time, most have one thing in common, they were usually robbed slowing for a curve or slowing to make an incline. This was no different. Since the type of coach that he was on would have been pulled by six or eight horses, and it's average speed was between 4 and 12 miles per hour, and on an incline it's even slower, his making a slight incline in the road allowed the masked bandits to pop out of nowhere and surprise the almost stop coach.

Bob Paul was had switched with Philpot is said to have immediately brought his shotgun to bare on one of the robbers, but another of the bandits shot first. His shot killed Bud Philpot. And in the process, the shot that killed Philpot startled the horses and they bolted. Peter Roerig, who was a passenger, was shot when one of the bandits fired at the stagecoach as it sped away. 

The Benson stage robbery attempt and the killing of Bud Philpot is said to be one of the major factors that led to the shootout in the lot near the OK Corral on October 26th, 1881 between the Earps and the Cowboy faction. The reason is that there were those in the Cowboy faction that tried to tie Doc Holliday in with that robbery. The Earp faction reportedly testified the Doc Holliday went back to Georgia to visit his family at the time. The only problem with that is that no one can prove that Holiday ever went back to Georgia after leaving there.

It should be noted that while one posse was headed by Deputy U.S. Marshal Virgil Earp, another posse was headed by County Sheriff Johnny Behan. Both failed to find the perpetrators. And interestingly enough, it is said that Morgan Earp later captured Luther King in connection to the attempted robbery. Suspects Jim Crane, Harry Head, and Billy Leonard were accused of the crime but were never found. As for Luther King, he is said to have somehow escaped jail and was never heard of again.

Bud Philpott was originally buried in Tombstone. But later he was removed and re-interred at the Calistoga Pioneer Cemetery in Napa County, California, just outside of Calistoga in what is known as the "Old Pioneer Cemetery." I cannot say for certain, but I believe Pete Roerig was buried in Tombstone's Boot Hill.

The picture above is the exact stagecoach that Bud Philpot was driving. Today it can be seen at the Sharlot Hall Museum in Prescott, Arizona.

Tom Correa