Theodore Roosevelt, 1903

"Let us speak courteously, deal fairly, and keep ourselves armed and ready." - Theodore Roosevelt, 1903

Saturday, November 29, 2014

Muslim Oil Drops to $68 a Barrel


Dear Friends,

For many years, I have hoped and prayed for the demise and disillusion of OPEC. Yes, I have prayed that the oil rich Muslim nations which make up OPEC would simply go broke and go away.

Now while that is still not taking place, with free-falling oil prices that day may come sooner than I had thought.

Yes, it is true, and we can all thank the American energy boom for generating shale oil while weakening OPEC's ability to keep the cost of a gallon of gas and petroleum-based products so high.

In just a matter of months, the price of a barrel of oil has dropped from more than $100 to about $70, and gas is now cheaper than it has been in almost 6 years.

A recent report conducted for the American Petroleum Institute claimed oil would cost twice as much as it does now if it weren't for America's fracking boom, which wrings oil and natural gas out of shale miles underground.

Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite. The ratio of clay to other minerals is variable. Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel layering or bedding less than one centimeter in thickness, called fissility.

Shale oil is the liquid and gas trapped between the layers of shale. The oil and natural gas is extracted in its current form by various techniques including traditional pump systems as well as fracking.

Oil shale was one of the first sources of mineral oil used by humans. Its earliest recorded use was in Switzerland and Austria in the early 14th century. In 1596, the personal physician of Frederick I, Duke of Württemberg, wrote of its healing properties.

Shale oil was used to light the streets of Modena, Italy at the turn of the 17th century. The British Crown granted a patent in 1694 to three people who had "found a way to extract and make great quantities of pitch, tarr and oyle out of a sort of stone."
Later sold as Betton's British Oil, the distilled product was said to have been "tried by divers persons in Aches and Pains with much benefit."

Shale oil was used in America for heating in 1821.

Modern shale oil extraction industries were established in France during the 1830s and in Scotland during the 1840s. The oil was used as fuel, as a lubricant and lamp oil.

The Industrial Revolution had created additional demand for lighting. It served as an alternative to the increasingly scarce and expensive Whale Oil.

During the late 19th century, shale-oil extraction plants were built in Australia, Brazil and the United States. And yes, China (Manchuria), Estonia, New ZealandSouth Africa, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland produced shale oil in the early 20th century.

The discovery of crude oil in the Middle East in 1939 brought most of these industries to a halt, although Estonia and Northeast China maintained their extraction industries into the early 21st century.

In response to rising petroleum costs at the turn of the 21st century, extraction operations have commenced, been explored, or been renewed in the United States, China, Australia and Jordan.

Hydraulic fracturing, also known as hydrofracturing, hydrofracking, fracking, or fraccing, is a well-stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a hydraulically pressurized liquid. 

While air pressure is being used more and more, the usual method of fracking includes a high-pressure fluid using mostly water is injected into a well bore to create cracks in the deep-rock formations through which natural gas, petroleum, and brine will flow more freely. 

When the hydraulic pressure is removed from the well, small grains of hydraulic fracturing hold the fractures open once the deep rock achieves geologic equilibrium.

The hydraulic fracturing technique is commonly applied to wells for shale gas, tight gas, tight oil, and coal seam gasSuch well stimulation is commonly used to increase flow rates.

While a lot of folks are under the impression that fracking is something brand new to the world or that it is restricted to the United States, fact is fracturing (fracking) as a method to stimulate shallow hard rock oil wells dates back to the 1860s. 

Back then, dynamite or nitroglycerin detonations were used to increase oil and natural gas production from petroleum bearing formations. 

On April 25, 1865, Civil War veteran Col. Edward A. L. Roberts received a patent for an "exploding torpedo". It was employed in PennsylvaniaNew YorkKentucky, and West Virginia using liquid and also, later, solidified nitroglycerin. Later still the same method was applied to water and gas wells. 

Stimulation of wells with acid, instead of explosive fluids, was introduced in the 1930s. Hydraulic fracturing began as an experiment in 1947, and the first commercially successful application followed in 1949. 

As of 2012, there are over 2.5 million hydraulic fracturing operations worldwide on oil and gas wells. 

Less than a half of all fracking operations in the world are taking place within the United States.

So, while the United States and other countries use fracking to recover oil down miles into the earth, OPEC has taken a hit because their product is becoming less and less desirable for as a source for manufacturing and fuels.

OPEC, the cartel of oil-producing nations that has historically been able to calibrate the price of oil -- and ultimately the price of a gallon of gasoline -- by increasing or decreasing suppl-y, announced this last week that it won't fight the price skid by cutting production this time.

What does that mean? Well, that likely means prices will continue to fall, and the more costly production technique of fracking could become cost-prohibitive.

Drivers have benefited in recent months from the falling prices, the API study found.

“This reduction in petroleum product prices have saved U.S. consumers an estimated $63 to $248 billion in 2013 and estimated cumulative savings of between $165 and $624 billion from 2008 to 2013,” stated the report.

OPEC decision to maintain a production target of 30 million barrels a day is seen as a reflection of its members view that the short term pain is necessary to pressure rival producers in the United States who need moderate oil prices to break even.

Saudi Arabia, the leader of OPEC, appears to be hoping to drive prices below the level at which shale oil production is believed to be economical. Experts say shale oil production turns too costly at the $60 a barrel level.

On November 28th, 2014, the price of a barrel of oil fell 7% to below $68 a barrel a day after the Saudi-led OPEC decided not to cut output. And yes, the Saudi plan could leave markets over-supplied. The 7% decline was the biggest one-day drop since May 2011.

The intention of the Saudi-led Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) plan is to slow oil development and subsequently production around the world -- but especially slow production here in the United States.

While OPEC is betting that the United States cannot find ways of producing a barrel of oil for less than $60 a barrel, other OPEC countries may not be able to withstand the steady production and the falling prices that strategy brings.

Fact is, OPEC members that have become accustomed to gouging the world, lining their pockets with the problems of others trying to make ends meet, all while lavishly spreading the plague call Islam.

"I think you're going to see additional tension between the OPEC ranks," said Jamie Webster, senior director of crude oil markets at IHS consultants.

OPEC members like Venezuela and Nigeria need levels close to $100 or above to fund their National budgets.

In the last few days, oil speculators agree "from Venezuela to Argentina, oil's steepest plunge in three years is reverberating through a region that accounts for the largest crude reserves outside of the Middle East."

Crude oil prices falling is due to the United States shale oil boom and lower consumer demand.

These factors are putting pressure on producers to cut spending and streamline operations to ensure profitability. And yes, some project development and drilling operations in South America are decelerating.

But, the Saudi plan does not take into concern South American oil producers or even other Muslim oil nations such as Iran and other supporters of terrorism.

Its main goal is targeted at slowing oil development around the world -- and specifically shutting down American shale oil operations by driving the price of a barrel so low that it forces Americans out of business -- but frankly, the Saudi plan of making oil production in America too costly to produce may not be working. 

Iran and other Muslim nations are suffering too. In fact, the Saudi plan may hurt the goals of the Muslim nations a lot more than it will hurt our country. 

Remember, the Muslim oil rich nations have prospered but spent foolishly. Instead of creating nations where their people prosper, Muslim nations have a two-tier society where those connected to the government or the religious sect are wealthy while the rest of their people are poor.

Also there is the other issue of spending their money on terrorism and the spread of Islam. In the last 40 years, since OPEC has become the leaders of the oil world, those Muslim nations have spent billions of dollars on building Mosques all over the United States, Europe, Malaysia, Indonesia, and in Australia.

The oil rich Muslim countries have made no bones about spreading Islam by building Mosques. They see the spread of Islam as conquering territory -- no different than funding invading armies.

Al Qaeda and  ISIS are both funded by Saudi Arabia and its Muslim oil. Iran's nuclear program, and their desire to obtain Nuclear Weapons to destroy Israel is being funded by the oil that that Muslim nation sells.

Basically, this all means that the less the price of a barrel is -- the less Muslim nations will be able to finance the spread of Islam, finance terrorism, finance Iran's nuclear weapon's program.

There is another thing, the less a barrel of oil costs, the less money that Muslim oil rich nations get for a barrel of oil, the less money Muslims will have to fund Environmental and Political Extremists here in the United States.

If American oil producers can sustain production with a barrel of oil at $60 or lower, then I believe that Americans may see a day when OPEC has self-implodes from its own greed and Muslim desire to take over the world around us.

And yes, that's just the way I see it.

Tom Correa



Friday, November 28, 2014

Obama Gives Businesses $3000 Incentive To Hire Illegal Aliens Before Americans

Before talking about how President Obama is giving Businesses an incentive to hire Illegals Aliens over native-born workers, let's take a quick look at the unemployment situation under Obama.

A report out earlier this year spoke to the problem of how unemployeed Veterans are havng a tough time finding jobs.

The report talked about how for the fourth year in a row, Veterans are having a harder time than non-veterans finding jobs.

Though the percentage of recent veterans unable to find work is in decline, mostly because more and more unemployed Vets are falling off the official rolls, the Bureau of Labor Statistics says that there still remains a growing number of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

And yes, their unemployment rate outpaces their civilian counterparts.

While Veterans are being hit hard, the number of people looking for jobs last week moved above 300,000 for the first time in nearly three months.

The U.S. Labor Department says unemployment insurance applications were up 21,000 to 313,000.

The Obama administration has adjusted the unemployment figures to reflect that it has fallen to 5.8 percent, down from 7.2 percent a year ago, a six year low.

But that number is in dispute, many say the real number is closer to 11 percent nationally.

The difference in offical numbers and real numbers has to do with how many people have fallen off of the unemployment rolls because they are no longer elegible for unemployment benefits.

Of the civilian population, Black unemployment is always much worse than white unemployment -- but the gap depends on where you live.

In August, the jobs report stated that the unemployment rate for blacks was 11.4 percent.

That would be more than twice of the official number of 5.3 percent, which by the way some reports list as the "white unemployment rate."

It is interesting to note that in the 42-year period during which the Bureau of Labor Statistics has separated out unemployment data by different races, black unemployment has always been higher than white unemployment. In fact, it has always been at least two-thirds higher.

The Obama administration is talks a lot of the so-called achievements, but they will no speak about the fact that Black Americans faired better under George W. Bush.

Of Latinos, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 25 million are employed with a 66.5 percent participation rate.

That represents over 14 million men employed and over 10 million women, with 5.1 percent unemployed and 7.0 percent of women unemployed.  For young people between the ages 16-19, that's 20 percent of them who are still unemployed.

The highest unemployment rates are in Alaska, New Jersey, California, Connecticut, Nevada, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and Oregon.

The Obama administration estimates that nearly 9 million Americans are officially unemployed.  But then again, that is compared to 7.6 million before the recession when George W. Bush was in office.

Where does that number come from since those receiving unemployment benefits number 2.3 million? Is it a number pulled out of the air? It is in fact just an estimate of all of those Americans who cannot find a job but fell off of the unemployment rolls.

So now, does President Obama have a plan to help unemployed Veterans? No. No he does not.

Does Obama have a plan to help Blacks get off welfare and unemployment, find jobs and lift themselves out of poverty? No. No, he does not.

As for Latinos here legally, Obama does not have a plan to help them find employment either.


While Obama doesn't care about other groups, believe it or not, Obama does have a plan to find Illegal Aliens jobs!

A report out on November 27th, 2014, ssays that businesses will reportedly have a $3,000-per-employee incentive to hire illegal immigrants over native-born workers under President Obama’s sweeping action on illegal immigration.

Yes, as insane as that sounds, Obama is aiding those who are breaking the law by finding them jobs.

Obama to give Businesses incentives to hire Illegal Aliens over Native-born Workers
How will it take place? Obama is giving companies the incentive by waiving ObamaCare penalties if they hire Illegals instead of unemployed Americans. 

It's true! Because of a loophole in ObamaCare, businesses will not face a penalty for not providing illegal immigrants health care, The Washington Times reports.

Subsequently, Illegal aliens are ineligible for public benefits such as buying insurance on ObamaCare’s health exchanges.

Wink, wink, that makes it more attractive to hire Illegals. Want to save money on ObamaCare, hire an Illegal.

After all, Obama said it's all legal to hire an illegal.

The Obamacare loophole puts Illegal Aliens ahead of Native-born Americans when being considered for employment.

“If it is true that the president’s actions give employers a $3,000 incentive to hire those who came here illegally, he has added insult to injury," Rep. Lamar Smith, Texas Republican told The Washington Times.

"The president’s actions would have just moved those who came here illegally to the front of the line, ahead of unemployed and underemployed Americans."

In recent days, Obama is in Campaign Mode again as he pitches and praised the supposed wonderful contributions to the U.S. by Illegals.

And no, they are not immigrants!

He can shout that it is imperative that the U.S. act now to change its broken immigration policy all he wants, but Americans know too well that this President is a liar and con artist.

And yes, Obama is not above twisting around facts to try to make his argument.

For example, Obama cited studies showing that immigrants open one-fourth of all new U.S. businesses and that 40 percent of Fortune 500 companies were founded by immigrants or their children.

He is correct that that is the case. He is wrong, and is flat out trying to deceive the Ameircan people by making us think that the immigrants that he is making reference to were Illagal aliens.

The fact is that those "immagrants and their children" that he speaks of all came here legally. But as usual, Obama leaves out the truth.

As for calling them Illegal Immigrants?

The Liberals, the Socialists, the Democrat Party tried to rename them by calling them "immigants" instead of "aliens".
Two points on this: First, the U.S. Code, Federal law, refers to them as "Aliens."

Second, well the poster below states how I feel about "Aliens" being called "Immagrants", and yes it is just a statement of fact:


Never in the history of the United States have Americans had a liar and con artist for a president like Obama.

And now, Obama’s executive action could make nearly 5 million Illegal alienas eligible to avoid deportation and void a United States federal law pertaining to the "unlawful employment of aliens".

Yes, Obama thinks he can just break whatever law he wants to.
For example: 8 U.S. Code § 1324a - Unlawful employment of aliens

"It is unlawful for a person or other entity—

(A) to hire, or to recruit or refer for a fee, for employment in the United States an alien knowing the alien is an unauthorized alien (as defined in subsection (h)(3) of this section) with respect to such employment, or

(B)
(i) to hire for employment in the United States an individual without complying with the requirements of subsection (b) of this section or

(ii) if the person or entity is an agricultural association, agricultural employer, or farm labor contractor (as defined in section 1802 of title 29), to hire, or to recruit or refer for a fee, for employment in the United States an individual without complying with the requirements of subsection (b) of this section."

Yes, President Obama is just thumbing his nose at the law -- all the while giving head of the line privaleges to Illegal Aliens by way of ObamaCare.

Is there anyone still so stupid as to think that Liberals, Socialists, Democrats,  are not trying to destroy America from within?

If so, how much evidence do you need to have placed right in front of you.

And yes, that's just the way I see it.

Tom Correa

Thursday, November 27, 2014

The True Story of Thanksgiving -- by Rush Limbaugh



This is from the November 21, 2012, Rush Limbaugh Radio Show:

What is the story of Thanksgiving?

What I was taught, what most people my age were taught, maybe even many of you were taught, the Pilgrims got to the New World, they didn't know what to do.

They didn't know how to feed themselves. They were escaping tyranny, but they got here, and the Indians, who were eventually to be wiped out, taught them how to do everything, fed them and so forth.

They had this big feast where they sat down and thanked the Indians for saving their lives and apologized for taking their country and eventually stealing Manhattan from 'em.

But that's not what really happened.

The story of the Pilgrims begins in the early part of the seventeenth century ...

The Church of England under King James I was persecuting anyone and everyone who did not recognize its absolute civil and spiritual authority.

Those who challenged ecclesiastical authority and those who believed strongly in freedom of worship were hunted down, imprisoned, and sometimes executed for their beliefs.

A group of separatists first fled to Holland and established a community. After eleven years, about forty of them agreed to make a perilous journey to the New World, where they would certainly face hardships, but could live and worship God according to the dictates of their own consciences.

On August 1, 1620, the Mayflower set sail. It carried a total of 102 passengers, including forty Pilgrims led by William Bradford.

On the journey, Bradford set up an agreement, a contract, that established just and equal laws for all members of the new community, irrespective of their religious beliefs.

Where did the revolutionary ideas expressed in the Mayflower Compact come from? From the Bible.

The Pilgrims were a people completely steeped in the lessons of the Old and New Testaments. They looked to the ancient Israelites for their example.

And, because of the biblical precedents set forth in Scripture, they never doubted that their experiment would work.

But this was no pleasure cruise, friends. The journey to the New World was a long and arduous one.

And when the Pilgrims landed in New England in November, they found -- according to Bradford's detailed journal -- a cold, barren, desolate wilderness.

There were no friends to greet them, he wrote. There were no houses to shelter them. There were no inns where they could refresh themselves. And the sacrifice they had made for freedom was just beginning.

During the first winter, half the Pilgrims -- including Bradford's own wife -- died of either starvation, sickness or exposure.

When spring finally came, Indians taught the settlers how to plant corn, fish for cod and skin beavers for coats.

Life improved for the Pilgrims, but they did not yet prosper!

This is important to understand because this is where modern American history lessons often end.

Thanksgiving is actually explained in some textbooks as a holiday for which the Pilgrims gave thanks to the Indians for saving their lives." That's not what it was.

Here is the part that has been omitted:

The original contract the Pilgrims had entered into with their merchant-sponsors in London called for everything they produced to go into a common store, and each member of the community was entitled to one common share.

It was a commune. It was socialism. "All of the land they cleared and the houses they built belonged to the community as well," not to the individuals who built them.

Bradford, who had become the new governor of the colony, recognized that this form of collectivism was as costly and destructive to the Pilgrims as that first harsh winter, which had taken so many lives.

He decided to take bold action. Bradford assigned a plot of land to each family to work and manage.

They could do with it whatever they wanted. He essentially turned loose the free market on 'em.

Long before Karl Marx was even born, the Pilgrims had discovered and experimented with what could only be described as socialism. And they found that it didn't work.

What Bradford and his community found was that the most creative and industrious people had no incentive to work any harder than anyone else, because everybody ended up with the same thing at the end of the day.

But while most of the rest of the world has been experimenting with socialism for well over a hundred years -- trying to refine it, perfect it, and re-invent it -- the Pilgrims decided early on to scrap it permanently.

What Bradford wrote about this social experiment should be in every schoolchild's history lesson:

'The experience that we had in this common course and condition," Bradford wrote.

'The experience that we had in this common course and condition tried sundry years... that by taking away property, and bringing community into a common wealth, would make them happy and flourishing -- as if they were wiser than God. ... For this community [so far as it was] was found to breed much confusion and discontent, and retard much employment that would have been to their benefit and comfort. For young men that were most able and fit for labor and service did repine that they should spend their time and strength to work for other men's wives and children without any recompense."

What he was saying was, they found that people could not expect to do their best work without any incentive. So what did they try next?

Free enterprise.

"Every family was assigned its own plot of land to work and permitted to market its own crops and products. And what was the result? 'This had very good success," wrote Bradford,

"For it made all hands industrious, so as much more corn was planted than otherwise would have been."

They had miraculous results. In no time they found they had more food than they could eat themselves. So they set up trading posts. They exchanged goods with the Indians.

The profits allowed them to pay off the people that sponsored their trip in London. The success and the prosperity of the Plymouth settlement attracted more Europeans, began what became known as the great Puritan migration.

And they shared their bounty with the Indians. Actually, they sold some of it to 'em.

The true story of Thanksgiving is how socialism failed. With all the great expectations and high hopes, it failed.

And self-reliance, rugged individualism, free enterprise, whatever you call it, resulted in prosperity that they never dreamed of.

-- end transcript.

Editor's Note:

May God Bless you and yours.

As I give thanks for the blessings that I have recieved, I pray to give thanks to God for his blessings in the future as he watches over my family and yours.

Happy Thanksgiving.

Tom & Deanna Correa




Tuesday, November 25, 2014

Budweiser Getting Rid Of Its Clydesdales Is Marketing Suicide



Screen Shot 2014-11-24 at 5.35.20 PM

Yes, on November 24th, 2014, it was announced that Budweiser is making one of the worst possible decisions ever.

They are stabling their iconic Clydesdale horses this holiday season, and guess who’s to blame. You might have guessed it, a young audience.

The "King of Beers" has decided to aim for a younger audience. So now they are in talks with someone by the name of Jay-Z (no last name given).

They are also looking into doing festivals, and, believe it or not, zombie themed parties to attract younger crowds.

Budweiser has seen a dip in popularity in sales the last 25 years and it’s parent-company, Anheuser-Busch InBev, said that 44% have never even drank a Bud.

The age group tested was around the ages of 21-27 in America says the Wall Street Journal.

Because Budweiser has had a drop in sales, selling more than 50 Million barrels in 1988 to a mere 16 Million in 2013, Bud is getting rid of their team of famous Clydesdales.

According to industry statistics, light and craft beers are responsible for their decline. Since 4.6 Million people turned 21 this last year, a number which is the biggest number of legal drinkers since the Baby Boom, so now Budweiser is appealing to them by "moderizing" their ad campaign.

BUDWEISER CLYDESDALE FACTS:

The Clydesdale Breed: Farmers living in the 19th century along the banks of the River Clyde in Lanarkshire, Scotland, bred the Great Flemish Horse, the forerunner of the Clydesdale. 

These first draft horses pulled loads of more than 1 ton at a walking speed of five miles per hour. Soon their reputation spread beyond the Scottish borders. 

In the mid-1800s, Canadians of Scottish descent brought the first Clydesdales to the United States where the draft horses resumed their existence on farms. 

Today, the Clydesdales are used primarily for breeding and show.

Hitch Requirements: To qualify for one of the traveling hitches, a Budweiser Clydesdale must be a gelding at least four years of age, stand 72 inches at the shoulder when fully mature, weigh between 1,800 and 2,300 pounds, have a bay coat,four white legs,a white blaze, and a black mane and tail.

Feed: Each hitch horse will consume as much as 20 to 25 quarts of whole grains, minerals and vitamins, 50 to 60 pounds of hay, and 30 gallons of water per day.

Hitch Locations: The Budweiser Clydesdales can be viewed at the Anheuser-Busch breweries in St. Louis, Mo., Merrimack, N.H., and Ft. Collins, Colo. 

They also may be viewed at Grant’s Farm in St. Louis and at Warm Springs Ranch, the 300-plus acre Clydesdale breeding farm located near Boonville, Mo.

Clydesdale Operations: Based in St. Louis, Mo., Clydesdale Operations is responsible for maintaining and scheduling the traveling hitches. Thousands of requests for the “gentle giants” are received each year. 

Events are typically requested and sponsored in part by the local Anheuser-Busch wholesaler. 

Each request is evaluated on the type of event, dates, and history of appearances in that particular area.

Stables: The official home of the Budweiser Clydesdale is an ornate brick and stained-glass stable built in 1885 on the historic 100-acre Anheuser-Busch brewery complex in St. Louis. 

The building is one of three located on the brewery grounds that are registered as historic landmarks by the federal government.

Handlers: Expert groomers travel on the road with the hitch. They are on the road at least 10 months every year.  

When necessary, one handler provides around-the-clock care for the horses, ensuring their safety and comfort.

Transport: Ten horses, the famous red, white, and gold beer wagon and other essential equipment are transported in three 50-foot tractor-trailers. 

Cameras mounted in the trailers are connected to monitors in the cabs that enable the drivers to keep a watchful eye on their precious cargo during transport. 

The team stops each night at local stables so the “gentle giants” can rest.

Air-cushioned suspension and thick rubber flooring in the trailers ease the rigors of traveling.

Drivers: Driving the combined 12 tons of wagon and horses requires expert skill and physical strength. 

The 40 pounds of lines held by the driver plus the tension of the horses pulling creates a weight of over 75 pounds. Hitch drivers endure a lengthy training process before they assume the prestigious role of “Budweiser Clydesdale Hitch Driver.”

Harness: Each harness and collar weighs approximately 130 pounds.

The harness is handcrafted with solid brass, patent leather, and stitched with pure linen thread. The harness is made to fit any Clydesdale.

However, Budweiser says that collars come in various sizes and must be individually fitted to the Clydesdales like a finely tailored suit.

Names: Duke, Captain, Mark, and Bud are just a few of the names given to the Budweiser Clydesdales.

Names are kept short to make it easier for the driver to give commands to the horses during a performance.

Horseshoes: Clydesdale horseshoes measure more than 20 inches from end to end and weigh about 5 pounds which is more than twice as long and five times as heavy as the shoe worn by a light horse. 

Wagon: Turn-of-the-century beer wagons have been meticulously restored and are kept in excellent repair. 

The wagons are equipped with two braking systems: a hydraulic pedal device that slows the vehicle for turns and downhill descents, and a hand-brake that locks the rear wheels when the wagon is at a halt.

As for the Bud Dalmatians? Dalmatians have traveled with the Clydesdales hitch since the 1950s.

The Dalmatian breed long has been associated with horses and valued for their speed, endurance, and dependable nature. Dalmatians were known as coach dogs because they ran between the wheels of coaches or carriages and were companions to the horses. 

Today, the Dalmatians are perched atop the wagon, proudly seated next to the driver.

Conclusion

Will Budweiser reconsider their new marketing strategy and keep their world famous wagon and Clydesdales?

Well, if they are smart they will. But at the same time, many companies go after new consumer groups with all sorts of advertising tricks to appeal to certain age groups, so why shouldn't Budweiser?

The "King of Beer" may now want to be known as the "Boss of Brew" to the younger set and that's OK.

But Budweiser should take this bit of advice, don't throw the baby out with the bath water just yet.

They should remember that big companies, like Bud, or even Coca-Cola who once had to return Classic Coke to their lineup because "they thought" a new generation wasn't buying it, has to try to bring in new consumers while not alienating the consumer group that is presenting keeping them in business.

Budweiser should remember that those drinking their product sort of expect to be catered to as well. 

They should remember that there was a lot of resentment when Budweiser sold out to a foreign beer maker in Europe.

To many, getting rid of the Clydesdale will be marketing suicide.

The thing that kills any beer is the same as with any product. Change the quality and you lose customers.

If they change their whole product, and get rid of the horses, I believe many may just find another beer.

UPDATE: 

Budweiser put out this statement this morning, November 25th, 2014: 

"The story this morning may have left a wrong impression – the Budweiser Clydesdales will, in fact, be featured in next year’s Super Bowl advertising and are also a part of upcoming holiday responsible drinking advertising.
The Clydesdales play a strong role for the brand, representing Budweiser quality and care for more than 80 years. As icons of the brand—and relevant symbols of integrity, perfection and team spirit for all generations—they are important to the brand and our campaigns." -- Budweiser. 
Tom Correa



Sunday, November 23, 2014

Utah's Concealed Carry Permits Popular Among All Americans


Over at the range where I took a course for my Conceal Carry permit, my CCW,  I was told that they also offered a class for the Utah multi-state CCW permit.

The 4 hour class room course is authorized by the State of Utah. The permit is recognized by more than 30 states. Because it is recognized in so many states, the Utah CCW permit has become known as the "Multi-state CCW".

While one does not need to have a California CCW to obtain the CCW from Utah, it should be noted that California will not recognize the gun permits from other states. Consequently, the Utah CCW is not good in California.

Since the Utah course does not require range or has a qualification process, courses can be instructed in different locations where a range is not available.

The fee for the Utah CCW course generally runs about $125. And yes, the fee includes the price of fingerprinting and a passport photo services.

Unlike the California CCW where the pistol the permit holder carries is listed on the permit, the Utah permit is not firearm or caliber specific. This is a great permit to obtain, especially for folks like me who enjoy traveling.

A report in the news that other day stated that tens of thousands of gun owners from around the country are taking advantage of Utah's concealed firearm permits each year -- which as stated above can be taken in a required class given by instructors licensed by Utah but who live in other states.

About two-thirds of the nearly 577,000 permits Utah has issued in the last two decades have gone to residents from other states. Yes, the majority of CCWs from Utah have gone to residents of other states!

A new state of Utah report issued this week shows that more than 81,000 out-of-state residents obtained Utah CCW permits in fiscal year 2014. That accounts for 80% of the cards issued.

"Utah's permit is attractive to out-of-state residents because it's recognized in 35 states and allows them to travel more widely with it," said Representative Curt Oda, a Republican lawmaker from Clearfield who is also a Concealed Carry permit instructor.

Utah ranks alongside Arizona and Florida as being the most popular for out-of-state permit seekers not because it's easy to get one, but because of the widespread acceptance around the country, said Clark Aposhian, chairman of the Utah Shooting Sports Council, the state's biggest gun lobby.

The requirements are:

1) Anyone 21 or older who passes a criminal background check
2) Must takes the Utah approved firearms course taught by an instructor certified by Utah

It is important to note that the State of Utah says very clearly on their website, Utah Department of Public Safety, "If you reside in a state that recognizes the validity of the Utah CFP or has reciprocity with Utah, you must obtain a CFP or CCW from your home state and submit a copy of it with your application for a Utah permit.Residency will be determined by your state-issued identification. If your state does not recognize the Utah permit this does not apply."

Most of the 2,300 current Utah CCW instructors -- actually 72% of them -- don't live in Utah.

Utah runs background checks on a nearly daily basis, and permits can be suspended or revoked if holders are convicted of crimes that take away their eligibility, Mr. Aposhian said.


While it is interesting that California, Oregon, Illinois, and New York do not recognize the Utah CCW permit, Utah state records show that those four states are the states with the most Utah-issued permits.

Yes, that's likely because permits from those states aren't widely recognized, so gun owners get a second card from Utah for travel.

Because Utah's permit isn't recognized in those states, it's easier to get a Utah card because residents there don't have to first get a permit from their own state -- which like getting one in California can be almost impossible depending on the county one lives in.

In 2007, San Francisco County with a population of almost 900,000 residents issued 8 CCW permits. In contrast, that same year, Calaveras County with a population of about 45,000 residents issued about 1,400 CCW permits.

So yes, depending on the county one lives in here in California -- a resident has to make the decision as to whether he or she wants to break the law or move to another county if he or she wants a CCW to legally protect ones's self.

Utah is one of more than a dozen states that issue concealed-carry permits to residents of other states.

Each state has its own rules for issuing the cards, and Utah's application process is not the weakest, said Allison Anderman, attorney with the Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence.

For instance, Utah requires that people from states that recognize the permit get a concealed carry from their home state first and submit it with the Utah application. "It's not like you can get denied in your home state and get a permit in Utah," Mr. Anderman said.

Utah issues cards to people around the country even if their home state doesn't recognize the permit, putting the burden on the card holder to know what each state law allows.

Washington and Wisconsin are tops for permit holders among the states where the card is recognized.

While Utah is helping make it easier for Americans to be self-reliant and protect themselves, Liberals will never understand the need to protect one's self and not be dependent on law enforcement.

Liberals will never understand the adage, "When seconds count, law enforcement is minutes away!"

Take for example, Gary Sackett, a board member for the Gun Violence Prevention Center of Utah, who said, "It makes no sense to us. It's not clear to us why we want to make it easy for people from other parts of the country when we have such a weak form of approval."

Sackett doesn't understand why Utah keeps up the program. He says, "This advances no Utah state interest at all. There's no interest in somebody from Florida having a concealed weapons permit. It simply does not make any sense for us to be in this marketplace."

On the other hand, Representative Curt Oda said the state of Utah has the right idea in making the process less strenuous than other states.

Other states often require live-firing as part of a permit course, while Utah only requires classroom time and familiarity with the basics of a gun, he said.

"Why should proficiency be a prerequisite to that right of defending yourself?" said Representative Oda. "Just because they happen to live across the border, doesn't mean they shouldn't be able to defend themselves as well."

And by the way, if proficiency where to be a prerequisite to the right of defending yourself, not very many people would have the right. And yes, that includes many of our law enforcement officers out there.

Let's be frank, many of the cops who I have known simply couldn't shoot well enough to call them proficient.

Most believed in firing lots of rounds at bad guys to little or no effect. Most officers simply don't care about accuracy or anything that could be called combat proficiency.

Even today, law enforcement officers are terrible shots. And yes, they seem to just want to have enough skill to re-qualify to keep their jobs.

Since I have seen this over the years, when someone says to me that one should be proficient with a firearm to use it in a life and death situation -- my reply is always "I would hope one is, but it is not a requirement at the moment they need to defend their life."

And yes, while I have seen law enforcement putting rounds everywhere except on the assailant at different times -- I have also seen people who I din't think could shoot do so very well when need be.

As for allowing more people around the country to defend themselves by way of Utah CCW permits, representatives from the Utah Bureau of Criminal Identification presented the annual report to a Utah legislative committee, on November 12th, 2014, and there were hardly any questions asked by lawmakers and minimal discussion.

In Utah, the program is considered old news and generates very little backlash -- other than that from Liberal anti-gun groups who would like to see all law abiding Americans defenseless and at the mercy of armed criminals who careless what laws they violate.

Applications cost $41 for Utah residents and $51 for non-residents. The permits last five years and cost $15 to renew. Here is California, a Utah CCW course can vary from $75 to $150 depending on the instructor.

During the record year of 2013, the permits brought in $2.3 Million for the state of Utah.

This year, 2014, the state lost $58,000 in administering the program because of the cost of buying a new card-printing system.

The total of 101,640 permits issued in the recently completed fiscal year is more than any year from 2004-2012. But it is fewer than in 2013, when nearly 134,000 permits were given out.


Tom Correa

Friday, November 21, 2014

The Lone Tree & German Family Massacres 1874


 
In the United States, the Land Ordinance of 1785 created the Public Lands Survey System, which formed the basis for dividing the Western territories into sections to allow for the sale of land.

Through surveys, states were divided into township grids which were further divided into sections and fractions of sections. And yes, surveyors went into completely uncharted areas of the country and endured perils mostly unheard of by the general public.

One of the most famous survey expeditions was the Hayden Geological Survey of 1871 which explored the region of northwestern Wyoming that later became Yellowstone National Park in 1872.

It was led by geologist Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden. The 1871 survey was not Hayden's first, but it was the first federally funded, geological survey to explore and further document features in the region soon to become Yellowstone National Park and played a prominent role in convincing the U.S. Congress to pass the legislation creating the park.


While Hayden's expedition was a success without incident, not all surveyors were as fortunate.


Meade County, Kansas, was created in 1873 and named in honor of General George G. Meade. At the time, Meade County was inhabited by buffalo and other critters that roamed the Great Plains.


Meade County is divided into nine townships, those survey parties of the 1870s commissioned by the government are responsible for how those townships were drawn up. And yes, it came at a steep price.


On August 24th, 1874, in Meade County, Kansas, the Southern Cheyenne massacred a Surveying Party consisting of Captain Oliver Francis Short, his 14-year-old son Truman, and four other members of the party. Four of them were scalped, all were mutilated -- including the boy.

The Southern Cheyenne

The Southern Cheyenne known in Cheyenne as Heévâhetaneo'o meaning "Roped People", also commonly known as Sowonia - "the Southern People".

While some Native Americans only point to White-Europeans as those who pushed them off "their" lands, fact is that tribes pushed each other off lands and killed each other in acts of ethnic cleansing centuries before Whites ever came to America.

As for the Cheyenne, after being pushed south and westward by the Lakota in the 1700s, the unified Cheyenne people began to create and expand a new territory of their own in the early 1800s.

Later the Cheyenne splintered into two groups, the Northern and Southern Cheyenne. The later consisting of a Cheyenne and Arapaho alliance later on.

In the southern portion of their territory the Cheyenne and Arapaho waged war with the allied Comanche, Kiowa, and Plains Apache. In fact, numerous battles were fought including a notable fight along the Washita River in 1836 with the Kiowa which resulted in the death of Cheyenne warriors of the Bowstring society.

In the summer of 1838, many Cheyenne and Arapaho attacked a camp of Kiowa and Comanche along Wolf Creek in Oklahoma resulting in heavy losses on both sides. Conflicts with the Comanche, Kiowa, and Plains Apache ended in 1840 when the tribes made an alliance with each other.

The new alliance allowed the Cheyenne to enter the Texas and Oklahoma panhandles and northeastern New Mexico to hunt bison and trade. The Southern Cheyenne expansion in the south and alliance with the Kiowa led to their first raid into Mexico in 1853. The raid ended in disaster with heavy resistance from Mexican lancers, resulting in all but 3 of the Indian war party being killed.

To the north the Cheyenne made a strong alliance with the Lakota Sioux who was their enemy for centuries. That alliance allowed the Northern Cheyenne to expand their territory into part of their former lands around the Black Hills.

Fortunately, the Northern Cheyenne escaped the smallpox epidemics which swept across the plains from white settlements in 1837-39 by heading into the Rocky Mountains. They weren't so lucky in 1849, when they were affected greatly by a Cholera epidemic that year.

Throughout this time, believe it or not, it is said that contact with "Euro-Americans," whites, was mostly contact involving mountain men, traders, explorers, treaty makers, and a few painters. Yes, painters!

The enemies of the Cheyenne included the Crow, Shoshone, Blackfeet, Flathead, Arikara, Gros Ventre, Assiniboine, and Plains Cree to the north and west of Cheyenne territory. To the east of Cheyenne Territory they fought with the Sioux, Pawnee, Ponca, Kaw, Iowa, Ho-Chunk and Omaha. South of Cheyenne territory they fought with the Kiowa, Comanche, Ute, Plains Apache, Osage and Wichita people.

While their wars with other tribes were very bloody affairs, many of the enemies the Cheyenne fought were only encountered occasionally such as on a long distance raid or hunt.

Some of their enemies, particularly the Indian peoples of the eastern great plains such as the Pawnee and Osage, would act as Indian Scouts for the U.S. Army. These Scouts provided the U.S. Army with valuable tactical information and "tracking skills" regarding Cheyenne habits and traditional fighting strategies.

The U.S. government brought the tribes to council again in 1867, to achieve peace under the Medicine Lodge Treaty.

That treaty promised the Arapaho a reservation in Kansas, but they disliked the location. Instead they accepted a reservation with the Cheyenne in Indian Territory, so both tribes were forced to move south near Fort Reno in present-day Oklahoma

1874

By 1874, most of the Southern Cheyenne Indians there had been driven from their land and placed on reservations in the Oklahoma Territory.

Warriors who left the reservation were called renegades. They used a combination of traditional weapons such as various types of war clubs, tomahawks, bows and arrows, and lances as well as non-traditional weapons such as revolvers, rifles, and shotguns acquired through raid and trade.

Since the Indian Wars were still going on in 1874, the United States government encouraged buffalo hunters the plains. The government's goal was to deprive the Indians of their major food source. They assumed this would force the Indians to stay on the reservation and under their control.

During this time period until the early 1880's what was left of the great buffalo herds were killed, their hides shipped back east where they could provide sturdy belts for the giant machines that fueled America's industrial revolution. Later, the bones of the buffalo that littered the American landscape were gathered and sold to make fertilizers.

During the summer of 1874, there was a great deal of bloodshed on the Great Plains. Indian war parties made up by those who were tired of the confinement of the reservations attacked American buffalo hunters, settlers, freighters, and soldiers at every opportunity.

It is said that conditions on the prairie became so bad that buffalo hunting was suspended for the season of 1874. Of course while that was the case for buffalo hunters who listened to what the government said and who in fact did not work for the government, the government's job of surveying the land was a whole nother issue.

Surveying the land was continued. And yes, surveying contracts that were awarded to civilian firms had due dates. Like today, to get paid, contractors have to make their due date. In the Old West, to get paid, many surveyors braved the elements and Indians to fulfill their contract obligations.

On July 8th, 1874, C.W. Babcock of Lawrence, Kansas, Surveyor General of Kansas, awarded contract No. 381 to Captain Luther A. Thrasher, Mr. Steel, W.C. Jones, and Harmon Scott, all of Iola, Kansas.

They were being paid $9117.35 to survey 920 miles of land. Under Captain Thrasher were S.W. Howe of Florence, Kansas, Mr. Crist, Charles Brooker, and Mr. Woolens. Others in the party unknown.

U.S. Contract No. 382 was signed by Captain Oliver Francis Short and Abram Cutler for the sum of $9677.92 and called for 1055 miles to be surveyed.

Captain Short, the ranking officer, left there July 29, 1874, for Wichita, where he bought oxen and some equipment. He was joined at Dodge City on August 4th by his sons Harold, age 16, and Truman Short age 14, Captain Cutler, James Shaw and son J. Allen Shaw age 15, J. H. Keuchler, age 18, Fleming (Clem) Duncan, William and Richard Douglas, Frank Blacklidge, and Harry C. Jones, age 22, who was a nephew of Captain Cutler.

All, except the contractors and James Shaw, a farmer, were students at Kansas University. One of the four men assigned for camp duty was Prather, one Mulatto, and names of others are unknown.

Captain Short

Captain Short,  who had fought in the Union Army during the American Civil War, was one of the first professional surveyors in Kansas. He was not new to the job, in fact one of his early contracts was No. 303, dating back to 1864 during the Civil War.

And no, he was no stranger to the frontier or the threat of hostiles -- both Indian and White. In fact, he is said to have worked and served from the Dakotas and into the Indian Territory and all the way into Kansas.

By 1874, Captain Short knew full well the hardships of dealing with the harsh landscape -- especially that of the Kansas prairie.

Captain Short was well aware of the dangers the Indians imposed. In fact, on a visit with his sister, Mary, the year before his last survey trip he told her, “The Indians are angry and not unjustly so, but I am sure I shall have no trouble with them if I take the surveying contract, for I have worked among them for eighteen years and have treated them kindly, they know me as a friend and will not harm me.”

While this attitude seems to be a little naive coming from a man who understood the dangers he faced, I can't help but wonder if he told his sister that in the same way as many troops would just to downplay the upcoming danger they may face -- just so those at home would not worry so much.

Some say Captain Short believed the Army would provide his survey team an escort in the event of danger with Indians, that did not take place.

On August 10th, Captain Short commenced work with three crews which included his own sons, Harold and Truman.

Captain Short usually left their main camp for several days at a time while running the township lines while Captain Thresher and Mr. Cutler who would run the section lines and spend the night in the main camp.

With August on the Great Plains being windswept, hot and dry, water a precious commodity, the crews had a drive pump that they could drive several feet into the bottom of a creek or pond and pump good clean water.

Their pump may have been used at their main camp on Crooked Creek while laying out Township 33, Range 28, in Meade County. They picked a spot by a lone cottonwood tree in the northeast quarter of section 4.

Yes, that lone cottonwood tree would become the symbol of their demise.

Captain Short sent the following letter to his family describing his last few days there:

"Crooked Creek, August 16, 1874. This very pleasant Sunday morning, you are all wondering where Pa and Harold and Truman are and what are our surroundings.

"We have commenced work and made a few very hard days on account of water which is very scarce. The creek's all dry and the pool's nearly all dry. Last night we found a marsh and have excellent spring water for our Sunday camp.

"To make matters worse the prairie has all been burned off and last night when we came into camp, the cook, Mr. Shaw, and his son and all the teamsters had all been fighting fire to save grass for the cattle and no supper was got that night and this morning, Harold, Captain Thrasher, and I went out and finished it.

"We have started three compasses to work. The ground is so hard we can scarcely dig, so we will be at great disadvantage to haul stone. If we could get a soaking rain it would be a great saving to us. 

"A great many soldiers have gone below so we have no apprehensions of Indians, still we shall keep a careful watching.

"We may have a chance to send this up (to Ft. Dodge) with hunters, if not will continue next Sunday.

"Harry Keuchler flags and yesterday suffered greatly for water, wished himself any other place, but after it was in the past was satisfied.

"No opportunity was found to mail this letter and it continues. Saturday Evening, August 22. You are all doubtless thinking and talking of us as the sun is just setting behind the prairie horizon.

"Our boys, Harry and two others and myself have been about all week, excepting Tuesday night, on exterior work and have found plenty of water and grass, many fine springs and abundance of stone. So if Thrasher's work proves as well as mine we shall have a good time.

"No sign of Indians. Have seen no buffalo but heard them this morning. Hunters are camped near us a will proceed to Ft. Dodge tomorrow and will carry up this letter. I have no idea when we shall get mail but as soon as we get exterior work done will send or go up which will be three or four weeks. The men sent up mail this week while we were out.

"Our boys work well and get along very well. Harold's shoes have run over and are nearly worn out. I have been quite unwell for a few days but feel well tonight. Our pump is great help, since we came in, have driven it down and got good cool water.

"You need not think my nights lying out in an Indian country with ears alert are as if with you but it will not last long I hope. Now it is getting dark, so good night.

"Morning Sunday 23rd. A very good rain last night - All well. Hunters starting so good-by. O.F.S. 
P.S. Truman has written but it is mislaid."

Captain Short gave the above letter to buffalo hunters to deliver. Following the departure of the hunters with his letter, Captain Short and his men took their Sunday rest in the camp at the lone tree.

It is interesting to note that while I have read some revisionist history lately that is trying to say that the Americans who came West were not as Christian as we are led to believe, they should look to Captain Short and his survey team for proof of the Christian devotion.

Being a good Christian, Captain Short insisted that the camp observe the Sabbath. Harold Short later recalled of this Sunday's activities saying, "Father, I remember well, took his washing down to the creek as well as his boys clothes and gave them a good cleaning, then after dinner, read his Bible and sang a few songs."

For those who wish to re-write the history of the Old West to make it look as if it was not, either for the benefit of Hollywood or some anti-Christian agenda, they can try as they may but the truth will be known no matter how hard they try to hide it.

That Sunday, it seems that some of the boys could not get along with the cook, and in an effort to resolve the dispute, Captain Short agreed to leave his son, Harold, to work at the camp when he and his crew set out the next day.

It would be the first time the two Short brothers were separated since the start of the contract. It would be the last time Harold would see his father and brother alive.

Monday, August 24th, 1874

Early Monday morning, August 24th, the crews set out to work. Captain Short's crew consisted of himself, son Truman, James Shaw and his son, James Allen, Harry Keuchler and Harry C. Jones.

It was agreed that this crew would take a horse, a wagon and two oxen and do some township work and would be gone for a week, while the other two compassmen would do the subdividing work.

The main camp was to remain as located until Captain Short returned. It was a clear bright day with a strong wind from the north. The Short crew worked its way three miles East then six miles South before they stopped for dinner. At the same time Captain Thrasher's crew worked two miles East and six miles South and stopped for dinner as well.

The two parties worked West together on the South line until they reached the next section line which took Captain Thrasher's crew back North.They parted at about 2:00 p.m., Captain Short continuing West on the township line for what was expected to be a good week's work.

Of that week's work, it is said that only about two hours worth were completed. Yes, something very bad took place to stop them.

The Massacre

Speculation being what it is, the forming of a theory or conjecture without firm evidence, the rest of what happened to Captain Short and his crew on that Monday afternoon can only be recreated through a few field notes and the evidence on the ground found by the other surveyors two days later.

Evidence shows that the six men proceeded unharmed to the Southwest corner of this township to the head of a little stream, later known as Short's Creek, where their last stone was set.

One-half mile to the north, where they were to set another stone, blood was found and traces in the ashes of the prairie fire showed that the Indians had made the attack from ambush in the ravine.

Truman, who was flagging to the north, had left the flag and ridden back to help his father. It is believed that if he had ridden to the lone tree camp, he might have saved his life.

Harold Short later wrote: "It seems that the Indians about 25 were expecting the party to continue in their western course and were lain in the deep ravine just beyond the west of the corner but when my father and brother turned to run the line north, they followed along the ravine to where the north line crossed then waited until my brother had crossed over and set his flag and continued north.

"When my father and men came north to the ravine they were surprised and attacked. It is the impression that my father was shot dead through the body the first man, leaving the others in an excited state."

With Captain Short being the first man shot dead, the battle was fought by leaderless surveyors from the shelter of their wagon while at the same time trying to run for help.

In their dash, driving the oxen, loading their guns, laying their dead and wounded in the wagon, they headed as fast as they could toward camp for help.

At the end of four miles, as dusk fell, the Indians surrounded them.

Evidence shows that the oxen were finally killed. That immediately disabled their wagon and stranded them at the mercy of the Southern Cheyenne.

Evidence also shows that tracks of only one white man were found. It was those of James Shaw, they were confirmed by the marks of iron from his boot heels.

While it is said that the men were all well armed with rifles, the trail was strewn with spent shells, mysteriously, the trail was also strewn with dishes and utensils from the wagon as if someone was going through the wagon searching for something. Some speculate that it was the team searching for more ammunition.

We know this because before returning, Captain Thrasher, Richard Douglas and others had traced the route of the surveyors back to the first point of attack. This was one-half mile north of the extreme southwest corner of section 31, township 33, range 28 west.

It is about eleven miles southwest of Meade "as the crow flies" and was near Stumpy arroya and a creek later called Short's creek. The location was about two miles west of old Odee post office.

From the first point of attack, to section 20 northeast, the surveyors attempted to make a running fight from the wagon. They tossed out their water barrel, mess kit and other equipment to make room for the bodies of those killed or wounded.

For about three and one-half miles the trail toward the camp was strewn with cartridge shells, showing a desperate fight.

It is believed that the Cheyenne had been angered by an order which called out 300 soldiers from Fort Dodge to drive the Cheyenne back to their Reservation.

These soldiers had passed by Captain Short's camp on their way south. At that time, Captain Short had asked the Commanding Officer to give him a small detail of soldiers to act as scouts or guards for the survey party.

That officer, who I was unable to identify, said he had no authority to grant his request. That officer also must have had a faulty crystal ball, because it was reported that he stated that "there were no Indians in the vicinity."

Before leaving, as with what had been arranged among the surveyors, the officer of that detail was told that should they be attacked -- that the danger signal would be to set the prairie grass on fire.

It was a system that allowed everyone and anyone within miles know that the smoke would be seen for miles. And yes, some say it might have been a good signal if the grass had not been burned off just a few days before.

As for the sounds of the attack, the shots and screaming, some believe that a strong North wind carried the sound of the gunfire away to the South and the men back at the lone tree camp. Subsequently those back at the camp had no idea of what had happened to their comrades now dead a mere three miles South of the main camp.

It is said that at around dusk on Monday, the men at the main camp saw a party that they couldn't make out to the Southwest appear from over a hill and then disappear.

Is is speculated that the men didn't think much of it because they thought it was a party of buffalo hunters who were there like the others in spite of the suspension on buffalo hunting. Little did they know it was Captain Short's dead comrades.

In the cover of darkness the Indians recovered their dead and left the survey crew by their wagon on the banks of what is Crooked Creek. The next day as Captain Thrasher worked the section lines, he went six miles South from the camp to the township line, then back to the North six miles.

He passed very near to the bodies as he worked the section line east of Crooked Creek but they and the wagon were hidden from view by the bluffs.

About noon on Wednesday, as he worked south, setting the northwest cornerstone on section 20, they looked east and caught view of the scene where the last man had fallen.

When they went to investigate, they found the dead laid out side by side. Their small dog was also dead and laying beside them. While the oxen had been killed and were found still yoked to the wagons, the Indians had slaughtered them and taken their hind quarters. The wagon and water barrel were shot full of holes.

Captain Thrasher and his men loaded the bodies of their dead comrades into the wagon and headed back to the main camp.

Harold Short later described the scene: "The bodies were found by Capt. Thrasher's party about 2 o'clock Wednesday the 26th and late in the afternoon I noticed the men coming in from the southwest with a wagon railing behind their cart. The compassmen generally had a cart with them, it being more easily gotten over a new and broken country, hauled by a team of oxen. The men in camp wondered what had happened, I said my father and party I am sure have been murdered, they laughed saying no such thing could have happened, but as they came nearer, Capt. Thrasher a little ways ahead came up to me and said, 'Little man you must be a brave boy for the Indians have killed your father and brother and all his party, we found them dead lying side by side near their wagon, put them all in the wagon and hitched to our cart and have trailed it into camp.' They were all taken out and buried in graves just a little south and east of the lone cottonwood tree."

The bodies were buried near sundown, about 100 yards southeast of Lone Tree, and the same distance southwest of the camp.

The victims were wrapped in tent cloth and then placed in one lone grave three feet deep. The initials of each was carved onto rough stones which were placed at the head of each body. After that, the survey work was then abandoned and the surveyors returned to Fort Dodge with the awful story.

The German Family Massacre

What seemed to be but a few days later, the same band of renegades massacred a family nearby. It took place on the morning of September 10th when Chief Medicine Water and his renegade band attacked John German and his family as they were breaking camp.

The family had camped along the stagecoach route which followed the Smoky Hill River. They were en route to Fort Wallace.

John German, his wife Lydia, their son Stephen and daughters Rebecca, Jane, and Joanna were killed and scalped. Besides being scalped, John was also mutilated. Lydia is known to have died by a tomahawk blow to the skull.

After plundering the camp and setting fire to their wagon, the band took German's four youngest daughters captive. The German daughters not killed but taken as slaves were Catherine age 17, Sophia age 12, Julia age 7, and Addie age 5.

Reports stated that after being raped and beaten, 7 year old Julia and 5 year old Addie were then sold to Grey Beard's band. But thankfully, both children were later recovered after an attack on his camp on November 8th by a column led by U.S. Army Lt. Frank D. Baldwin.

The two oldest daughters, 17 year old Catherine and 12 year old Sophia, were also raped and beaten, but their lives were made a living Hell as they were kept as slaves. They were recovered in February when Chief Stone Calf and most of the Southern Cheyenne surrendered at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

On February 27, 1875, The New York Times front page had a small one column article "Surrender Of Indian Tribe" and "Stone Calf And 1,600 Cheyennes With Their German Women Captives Surrender".

Because the girls were recovered by the Army, through their eye witness testimony of what was taken from the Lone Tree Massacre, we know that it was mainly Cheyenne warriors led by Chief Medicine Water who were those responsible for the death of Captain Short, his son, and the others.

As captives the girls saw one warrior riding the black shod horse, that horse belonged Truman Short. While slaves, they also saw many brass pieces that were from the surveying equipment taken after the Short Massacre.

Later it was found out that some twenty miles to the West, a short time after the massacre, hunters saw a party of twenty-five or more Indians leaving camp. Supposedly those same hunters examined the camp and found parts of a chain, a compass, and some papers belonging to Captain Short.

While some say that the report by those hunters was true, I don't put much weight into it simply because it means that those hunters had to enter a Cheyenne camp, spend time there to look around, and then leave without losing their hair -- that seems highly unlikely.

Believe it or not, it was reported that among the things abandoned at this camp was a postal card on which an Indian had crudely drawn six figures that were supposedly bodies in various positions with dots marking the wounds of the men in Short's party. But again, who really knows if that was true or not.

Remember, rumors back in those days were such that the Lone Tree Massacre could have started out by saying 6 men were killed -- and in a week the number killed could have climbed to 50 or more with every telling. It is just a fact that unreliable reports of such killings were notoriously tossed about -- as they are today until the truth is ferreted out..  

Those Responsible

As for those responsible for the massacres at Lone Tree and of the German family, it is said that Chief Medicine Water and his followers of 35 Cheyenne, 27 Kiowa, 11 Comanche, and 1 Caddo were those who massacred Captain Short's survey party and the German family.

After they were captured, two of the Cheyenne died en route to prison. One was Grey Beard, who was supposedly stopped when he tried to commit suicide only to die later when he was shot dead while trying to escape.

Those who lived were incarcerated at Fort Sill in Indian Territory. After that, using eight prison wagons, they were taken to Fort Leavenworth. And yes, after that, supposedly they were loaded onto a special train and transported to St. Augustine, Florida, for further confinement.

It should be noted that through aid of the Surveyor General of Kansas, and General John Pope who was the Commandant at Fort Leavenworth at the time, a party left Lawrence with six metallic coffins.

A party of surveyors headed by Richard Douglas left Lawrence on January 20th, 1875, with six caskets, and arrived at Fort Dodge on the 26th. Here they were given a military escort from Fort Dodge to Lone Tree Camp.

The remains of those killed in the Lone Tree Massacre were dug up and returned to their homes.

Captain Short and son Truman were buried on February 6th, at Mount Muncie cemetery, Leavenworth, their former home. James Shaw, who had come to Lawrence in 1866, was buried in that city in Oak Hill cemetery, with his son, J. Allen Shaw.

It was reported that H. C. Jones, nephew of Captain Cutler, was also buried at Lawrence. The body of John H. Keuchler was sent to his father, a doctor of Springfield, Illinois.

Yes, retrieving their bodies was a very honorable thing to do.

Tom Correa