Friday, January 31, 2014

Horse Care & Feeding Questions and Answers - Advice from 1914

Can ear corn be fed to horses?

Ear corn is a satisfactory feed, assuming it is adequately dried and free from mold. It is good for greedy horses that bolt grain.

Are pelleted rations satisfactory?

Yes. pelleted rations have proven popular because they are convenient to handle, easily stored, and reduce dustiness. However, grinding and pelleting increase ration costs.

What causes wood chewing and how can it be minimized?

Wood chewing may be a result of boredom or of a deficiency in the diet.

Boredom may be reduced by feeding three times daily, increasing exercise, or offering some additional straw or coarse hay to the horse when feeding pellets.

Can silage be fed to horses?

The use of silage requires especially good management. However, good-quality silage free from mold and not frozen can be a good roughage during the winter.

If silage is fed, it is a good idea to also use 3 to 4 pounds of dry hay daily.

How many pounds of silage are equivalent to a pound of hay?

Corn silage is ensiled at 60 to 65 percent moisture. About 2.5 wet pounds of corn silage are equal to 1 pound of air-dry hay.

Grasses and legumes are usually ensiled at 40 to 50 percent moisture and are called haylage. About 1.6 pounds of wet haylage is equal to I pound of air-dry hay.

Of what value is molasses?

Wet or dry molasses are sometimes included in the ration to increase palatability and consumption.

To keep the ration from being too laxative, it should not include more than 4 to 5 percent molasses.

If legume bays analyze higher in crude protein, why do horsemen often prefer grass hay?

Grass hays often cure more easily and thus are considered to be cleaner and less apt to contain mold.

Is it advisable to limit feed hay?

Hay is often limited for race horses to insure an ingestion of more energy from grain.

Roughage is sometimes limited for show horses to avoid hay bellies.

Is it possible to feed rations that are too rich?

Yes. Overfeeding, or bringing to a heavy feed of grain too quickly without sufficient exercise, can result in colic, stocked legs, and puffy or swollen hocks.

How can greedy horses be prevented from bolting or eating their grain too quickly?

Put a few baseball-sized smooth stones in the grain box. Ear corn will also help.

What is founder?

Founder is a metabolic disorder resulting from overeating, drinking cold water when overheated, or other types of stress.

It can lead to separation of live and horny portions of the hoof, which causes severe lameness.

Immediately placing cold packs on the horse's legs or standing the front legs in cold water are good first aid measures.

Severe cases require the attention of a veterinarian.

What is colic?

Colic is simply a bellyache and can result from any number of causes.

Drenching with a pint of mineral oil or several quarts of water containing one half cup of salt or epsom salt may offer relief.

Colic should always be considered an emergency; consult a veterinarian.

Can horses use urea or other nonprotein nitrogen sources for protein?

Not efficiently because the cecum (a pouch of the large intestine where nonprotein nitrogen would be converted to useful protein) is located too far down the digestive tract.

Too much urea could be toxic to the horse so avoid using it.

Do antibiotics improve growth?

The feeding of 85 milligrams of aureomycin daily to foals up to 1 year old improves growth rates slightly.

When properly prescribed, antibiotics appear to be more desirable for therapeutic uses for diseases.

What should one look for on a feed tag or label when buying commercial horse feed?

Take special note of the percentages of total digestible nutrients (TDN) if provided, crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), and the feed ingredients.

Also be sure to read the feeding directions.

What is meant by percent T.D.N.?

The percent T.D.N. (total digestible nutrients) is that part of the ration that will be digested and retained in the horse's body as energy.

Of what significance is crude fiber (C.F.) in the ration?

Generally, the higher the percent crude fiber, the lower the percent T.D.N. in the ration.

Shelled corn analyzes about 3 percent crude fiber, oats 12 percent, and hays 24 to 30 percent.

Rations analyzing more than 8 to 12 percent crude fiber probably contain considerable roughage.

Can an orphan foal be raised on cow's milk?

Yes, but at the beginning it is desirable for the foal to receive some colostrum.

There are also milk replacers available on the market.

How should cow's milk be modified for a foal?

Mare's milk, as compared with cow's milk, is lower in protein and fat and higher in water and sugar.

Therefore, add one tablespoon of sugar and four tablespoons of water to a pint of cow's milk.

Warm to about 100' F. and feed 1/2 pint every two hours for the first few days.

After four weeks the foal can be gradually switched to undiluted cow's milk or skimmed milk.

Why furnish extra vitamin A in the ration if green feeds are a good source of carotene that can be converted to Vitamin A in the body?

Research has shown that high uptake of nitrogen in plants can interfere with carotene conversion to vitamin A.

Vitamin A is especially important for breeding horses. Supplemental vitamin A is inexpensive and good insurance for the horse's health.

Should salt be fed loose or in the block?

Salt can be fed either way, but consumption may be higher in the loose form.

Do mares need grain before foaling?

Mares fed good bay and in thrifty condition (healthy and neither fat nor thin) may not need extra grain.

Thin or old mares may need some grain. In late gestation, a light grain ration along with good roughage is acceptable, but the mare should not be overfed.

Heavy feeding can cause foaling trouble because the mare may become too fat.

How should mares be fed after foaling?

Feed only light grain with hay for 7 to 10 days after foaling.

Lactation that is too heavy can cause scouring. Increase grain slowly for the mare until the foal is old enough to take more milk.

Do horses need tooth care?  

Yes. Irregular wear may leave sharp jagged edges that can cause pain or poor mastication of feed.  

File with a float or guarded rasp.

Occasionally milk teeth that remain in too long need to be pulled; otherwise they may cause crooked permanent teeth.

All advise from 1914!

Wednesday, January 29, 2014

Concealed Carry: Top 10 Myths

Myth #1: Concealed Carry Doesn’t Prevent Crimes

Fact: News reports tell many stories of armed civilians preventing mass murder in public.

A few selected at random include:

• A citizen with a gun stopped a knife-wielding man as he began stabbing people in a Salt Lake City store.

• Two men retrieved firearms from their cars and stopped a mass murder at the Appalachian School of Law.

• Citizen takes out shooter while police were penned down in Early, Texas.

• Citizen stops apartment shoot-up in Oklahoma City.

Myth #2 : Concealed Carry Laws Increase Crime

Fact: Fortytwo states, comprising the majority of the American population, are “right-to-carry” states.

Of these 42, thirty eight are “shall issue” states where anyone without a criminal record will be issued a permit, and four states require no permit.

In 1988 there were only 10 “right-to-carry” states.

Statistics show that in these states the crime rate has fallen or did not rise after the right-to-carry law became active as of July 2006.

Eight states are “may issue” states where it is nearly impossible to obtain a CCW permit.

Fact: Gun homicides were 10% higher in states with restrictive CCW laws, according to a study spanning 1980-2009.

Fact: Crime rates involving gun owners with carry permits have consistently been about 0.02% of all carry permit holders since Florida’s right-to-carry law started in 1988. 

Fact: After passing their concealed carry law, Florida’s homicide rate fell from 36% above the national average to 4% below, and remains below the national average (as of the last reporting period, 2005).

Fact: In Texas, murder rates fell 50% faster than the national average in the year after their concealed carry law passed.

Texas also saw rape rates fall 93% faster in the first year after enactment, and 500% faster in the second. And, assaults fell 250% faster in the second year.

Fact: Crime is significantly higher in states without right-to-carry laws.

Fact: States that disallow concealed carry have violent crime rates 11% higher than national averages.

Fact: Deaths and injuries from mass public shootings fall dramatically after right-to-carry concealed handgun laws are enacted.

Between 1977 and 1995, the average death rate from mass shootings plummeted by up to 91% after such laws went into effect, and injuries dropped by over 80%.

Myth #3: Concealed Carry Permit Holders Shoot Police

Fact: The Violence Police Center started listing instances of CCW holders shooting police.

From May 2007 through November 2009 (2.5 years) they recorded nine police deaths.

Three of those were in one mass killing by a white supremacist using an AK-47 rifle, not a handgun which is what concealed carry pertains to.

Myth #4: People With Concealed Weapons Permits Will Commit Crimes

Fact: The results for the first 30 states that passed “shall-issue” laws for concealed carry permits are similar in that all had noticable decreases in crime.

Fact: In Texas, citizens with concealed carry permits are 14 times less likely to commit a crime. They are also five times less likely to commit a violent crime. 

Fact: People with concealed carry permits are:

• 5.7 times less likely to be arrested for violent offenses than the general public

• 13.5 times less likely to be arrested for non-violent offenses than the general public

Fact: Even gun control organizations agree it is a "non-problem," as in Texas for example, “because there haven’t been Wild West shootouts in the streets” as predicted.

Fact: Of 14,000 CCW licensees in Oregon, only 4 (0.03%) were convicted of the criminal (not necessarily violent) use or possession of a firearm.

Fact: In Florida, a state that has allowed concealed carry since late 1987, you are twice as likely to be attacked by an alligator as by a person with a concealed carry permit.

Myth #5: 460 People Have Been Killed By CCW Permit Holders

Fact: The “study” by gun control group Violence Policy Center covers a six year span, meaning about 76 shootings of all types, including justifiable homicides.

Fact: As of 2001, there are over 11,000,000 CCW holders, meaning the worst case kill rate (justifiable or not) is 0.004% of all CCW holders.

Myth #6: Concealed Guns In Bars Will Cause Violence

Fact: In Virginia, in the first year where CCW holders were allowed to, the number of major crimes involving firearms at bars and restaurants statewide declined 5.2%

The crimes that occurred during the law’s first year were relatively minor.

Myth #7: Texas CCW Holders Are Arrested 66% More Often

Fact: Most arrests cited are not any form of violent crime and includes bounced checks or tax delinquency.

Fact: The Violence Policy Center “study” only includes arrests, not convictions.

Fact: Many of these arrests in this premature VPC “study” came in the early years of Texas CCWs when the law was not understood by most of the law enforcement community or prosecutors.

Fact: Compared to the entire population, Texas CCW holders are about 7.6 times less likely to be arrested for a violent crime. 

The numbers breakdown as follows:

• 214,000 CCW holders

• 526 (0.2%) felony arrests of CCW holders that have been adjudicated

• 100 (0.05%) felony convictions

Fact: A different study concludes that the four year violent crime arrest rate for CCW holders is 128 per 100,000.

For the general population, it is 710 per 100,000. In other words, CCW holders are 5.5 times less likely to commit a violent crime.

Fact: “I … [felt] that such legislation present[ed] a clear and present danger to law-abiding citizens by placing more handguns on our streets. Boy was I wrong. Our experience in Harris County, and indeed statewide, has proven my fears absolutely groundless”. -Harris County Texas District Attorney John B Holmes.

Myth #8: CCWs Will Lead To Mass Public Shootings

Fact: Multiple victim public shootings drop in states that pass shall-issue CCW legislation.

Fact: CCW holders have prevented or curtailed mass public shootings, examples:

• Pearl, Mississippi (Pearl Junior High School)
• Edinboro, Pennsylvania (Parker Middle School)
• Winnemucca, Nevada (Players Bar and Grill)
• Colorado Springs, Colorado (New Life Church)

Fact: Of all the alternatives to preventing mass public shootings, police officers believe that civilian concealed carry is te most effective.

A full 86% also believe mass shooting “casualties would likely have been reduced” or “avoided altogether.”

Myth #9: People Do Not Need Concealable Weapons

Fact: In 80% of gun defenses, the defender used a concealable handgun. A quarter of the gun defenses occurred in places away from the defender’s home.

Fact: 77% of all violent crime occurs in public places. 

This makes concealed carry necessary for almost all self-defense needs. But due to onerous laws forbidding concealed carry, only 26.8% of defensive gun uses occurred away from home.

Fact: Often, small weapons that are capable of being concealed are the only ones usable by people of small stature or with physical disabilities.

Fact: The average citizen doesn’t need a Sport Utility Vehicle, but driving one is arguably safer than driving other vehicles.

Similarly, carrying a concealable gun makes the owner – and his or her community – safer by providing protection not otherwise available.

Myth #10: Police & Prosecutors Are Against Concealed Carrying By Citizens

Fact: Expain this to the Law Enforcement Alliance of America, Second Amendment Police Department, and Law Enforcement for the Preservation of the Second Amendment, all of whom support shall-issue concealed carry laws.

Fact: In a survey of 15,000 officers, 91% said concealed carry should be permitted citizens “without question and without further restrictions.”

Fact: 66% of police chiefs believe that citizens carrying concealed firearms reduce rates of violent crime.

Fact: These pro-conceal carry quotes from police and prosecutors:

"to the best of my knowledge, we have not had an issue. I had expected there would be a lot more problems … But it has actually worked out.” Lt. William Burgress; Calhoun County Michigan. 2005

"In a recent poll, more than eighty-five percent of our 1352 members favored Right-to-Carry." - Letter to St. Louis Police Chief Ron Henderson, from Sgt. John J. Johnson, President St. Louis Police Officers Association, 1999

"I lobbied against the law in 1993 and 1995 because I thought it would lead to wholesale armed conflict. That hasn't happened. All the horror stories I thought would come to pass didn't happen. No bogeyman. I think it's worked out well, and that says good things about the citizens who have permits. I'm a convert." - Glenn White, President of the Dallas Police Association, Dallas Morning News, 1997

"To set the record straight… The process is working… The statistics show a majority of concealed firearms or firearm licensees are honest, law-abiding citizens exercising their right to be armed for the purpose of lawful self defense." - Sandra B. Mortham, Florida Secretary of State.

"The concerns I had – with more guns on the street, folks may be more apt to square off against one another with weapons – we haven't experienced that." - Charlotte-Mecklenburg NC Police Chief Dennis Nowicki, The News and Observer.

"The facts are in and the record is clear: Right to Carry gives law enforcement, their families and our communities real protection from violent criminals." – James J. Fotis, Executive Director, Law Enforcement Alliance of America.

Please support:

Second Amendment Foundation

It is not a myth that they are fighting for our Constitutional Right. Yes, our Civil Rights!


Tuesday, January 28, 2014

Microstamping Law Challenged In CA Courts

Dear Readers,

One of the myths that anti-gun people, those who would deny others our 2nd Amendment Rights, like to spread is that independent testing by forensic technologists show that microstamping technology is reliable.

That is a lie!

Fact is, in tests a full  46% of impressions are ranked as “unsatisfactory,” illegible, after firing only ten rounds. 

Yes, almost half of all stamps can't be read.

Besides that very important fact which points to the unreliability of the technology, how stupid do you have to be to think that criminals - who right now practice filing down serial numbers on the sides of guns - won’t hesitate for a moment to file or exchange firing pins.

And if the capabilities of criminals are not a factor and simply don't matter to anti-gun people, then maybe the fact that firing pins are readily removable and swappable in most models of handguns.

Yes, just about anyone can swap out and replace inexpensive replacement parts.

Of course there is also the issue of reloaded ammo, which is extremely common these days due to the economics of recycling casings, the ban on lead.

Home reloading in itself makes prosecuting cases nearly impossible once the “reloaded ammo” defense is raised for microstamping that imprints case sides.

A shell casing may have two or more markings, making the final shooter impossible to identify. And yes, that in itself may get criminals off instead of being convicted.

Some deviously clever defense attorney might find a jury gullible enough to believe him when he asserts that the microstamped cartridges did not come from his client's gun but instead must have come from the first owner of the gun - even though the casings were from a stolen gun. 

And yes, most crimes perpetrated in the United States are done with stolen throw-away guns.

Knowing these fact of life, what makes anyone think that microstamping shells will accomplish anything other than placating Liberal anti-gun political donors.     

How Does Microstamping Work?

Firearm microstamping, or ballistic imprinting, works by engraving a microscopic marking onto the tip of the firing pin.

When the gun is fired, it leaves an imprint, usually of a serial number, on the bullet casings.

In theory, the telltale mark allows law enforcement investigators to trace the bullet to the registered gun owner.

California’s law is the first in the nation to be implemented and was originally signed into effect in October 2007, but not implemented until recently. And yes, several other states are considering similar measures.

For now, like other laws these days, the government and law-enforcement are exempt from the microstamping requirements.

One of the main arguments critics pose is the claim that the technology is not perfected, yet the requirement has been put into effect.

The patent holder of microstamping tech, Todd Lizotte, was part of a Department of Justice study team which concluded:

“Legitimate questions exist related to both the technical aspects, production costs, and database management associated with microstamping that should be addresses before wide scale implementation is legislatively mandated.”

That statement is according to the study which was published in the Association of Firearm and Toolmark Examiners (AFTE) Journal.

Smith & Wesson, and Ruger leave California?

With all of this, does anyone wonder why Smith & Wesson and Ruger have decided to quit selling their line of semi-automatic handguns in California over stamping requirement?

The new California gun law of microstamping, which anti-gun proponents say will help law enforcement, has now driven Smith & Wesson and Sturm Ruger out of California.

The two companies have announced they will stop selling part of their wares in the nation's most populous state rather than try to comply with a law that requires some handguns to have technology that doesn't work.

Yes, the imprints a tiny stamp on the bullet so it can be traced back to the gun has not been proven to work!

The companies, and many pro-Constitutionalists, say "microstamping" technology is unworkable in its present form, can impair a gun's performance, and can be used by defense attorneys to get their clients off.

“Smith & Wesson does not and will not include microstamping in its firearms,” said Smith & Wesson in a statement.

“A number of studies have indicated that microstamping is unreliable, serves no safety purpose, is cost prohibitive and, most importantly, is not proven to aid in preventing or solving crimes.”

"This is the latest attempt to undermine the Second Amendment in California by politicians with little to no knowledge of firearms ... " said Chuck Michel, National Rifle Association

“The microstamping mandate and the company’s unwillingness to adopt this so-called technology will result in a diminishing number of Smith & Wesson semi-automatic pistols available for purchase by California residents.”

Sturm Ruger also announced this month that they will also stop selling their guns in California due to the microstamping law.

Microstamping critics say tracing a bullet to a registered gun owner does little to fight crime, since criminals often kill with stolen handguns.

A Backdoor Assault On Our Constitutional Rights

Many believe tracing bullets was never the real intent of the law in the first place.

“The technology doesn’t fully exist yet, but by making it into a law, they [California] in fact enacted a gun law without actually passing one,” David Kopel, a constitutional law professor at the Denver University Sturm College of Law and Research Director of the Independence Institute, told Fox News.

“This is an indirect way to ban new handguns from being sold.”

"This is the latest attempt to undermine the Second Amendment in California by politicians with little to no knowledge of firearms, who seek to impose their liberal values upon those who choose to protect their families with the constitutional right to own a handgun," said Chuck Michel, West Coast Counsel for the National Rifle Association, an Adjunct Professor at Chapman University and author of the book "California Gun Laws."

Two trade groups, the National Shooting Sports Foundation and the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Institute, have filed a legal challenge to the law in California Superior Court earlier this month.

The lawsuits filed against California this week by the National Shooting Sports Foundation and the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers’ Institute challenge the microstamping law and its technology.

In a statement last week, they say that they predicted back in 2007 when the law was first passed that it would result in a “de facto semiautomatic handgun ban.”

Not surprising, other states considering a microstamping requirement include Connecticut, New York, and Massachusetts.

Smith & Wesson said it expects sales of its California-compliant revolvers, which aren't required to have microstamping, will offset the impact to the company.

Company President and CEO James Debney vowed to continue to work with industry groups to oppose the law, while providing California customers with products that do comply with it.

We should all commend Ruger and Smith & Wesson for their actions as liberals take another backdoor attempt at a semi-automatic gun ban.

The liberals in complete control of the California legislature see making end-runs around the Constitution to deprive Americans of their Constitutional Rights as a perfectly legitimate practice.
And since I'm sure someone will write to ask what I think of those who work vigorously to purposely deprive Americans of our Constitutional Rights?

Well, they should be tried for treason. And yes, I believe if found guilty - then capital punishment should not be ruled out as a punishment for those wanting to usurp our Constitutional Rights for their own political or financial gains.

That's just how I see it.

Tom Correa

Sunday, January 26, 2014

Civitas Media Newspaper Chain Considered Publishing Multi-State Gun Permit Holder Database?

The Journal News

On December 22nd, 2012,  The Journal News published an interactive map showing the names, addresses and home locations of all gun owners holding carry permits licensed in Westchester and Rockland counties in New York.

In retaliation, the following day, blogger Christopher Fountain, published the names and addresses of the staffers of The Journal News.

The newspaper and some of its staff responded by hiring armed security to provide personal protection for them and their families.

The staff at The Journal News became worried about reprisals from people who they themselves had put at risk, even in mortal danger, after they published that database of legal gun owners who have carry permits in New York.

Rockland County law enforcement officers condemned the map, saying that it endangered lives, including those of police and corrections officers.

Several newspapers also published reports of victims of domestic violence, rape, or other violent crimes who reported that their attackers now had possession of their addresses as their names were published online.

Newsday has reported that police are investigating if the Journal News pistol permit map played a role in a burglary in White Plains, New York.

According to police, at least two burglars broke into a home on January 12th, 2013, but were unsuccessful in an attempt to open a gun safe, which contained legally owned weapons.

According to records, police authorities are still investigating what role, if any, the Journal News database played in the burglars' decision to target the home. 

The Daily Mail has reported that a burglary has occurred in a similarly mapped home in New City, New York, on January 16th, 2013.

Burglars pried escaped with two handguns, two pistol permits, cash, savings bonds and jewelry. The firearms were in the stolen safe.

It wasn't until January 19th, 2013, the newspaper removed the interactive map, although the information it contained was by then leaked all over the Internet.

The Journal News database was made public for all the wrong reasons. It was done so with the intent of specifically attacking Americans who are "legal" gun owners - Americans who were simply exercising their Constitutional Rights.

Remember, the Gannett-owned Journal News made public a database that they took the time and effort to compile all to attack legal gun owners. Their database gave names, addresses, and detailed maps to the residences of those holding gun permits.

The actions on the part of The Journal News should have angered every American.

While it angered Americans who follow the law and adhere to U.S. laws as stated in the Constitution, those who overwhelmingly said it was an under-handed effort to stigmatize legal gun owners, anti-gun Democrats and other liberals were all for it.

Some law enforcement officials complained that the interactive map which the Journal News published with an article entitled "The gun owner next door: What you don't know about the weapons in your neighborhood."

Their article provided burglars with a roadmap of which homes to avoid and which ones to hit.

The ultra-liberal newspaper nevertheless defended the decision to publish the material, obtained through Freedom of Information Act requests.

Then, believe it or not, they had the gaul to try to use the tragedy in Newtown, Connecticut, as an excuse to put so many Americans in harm's way.

"The massacre in Newtown remains top-of-mind for many of our readers," a Journal News statement said.

"In the past week, conversation on our opinion pages and on our website,, has been keenly focused on gun control. Our readers are understandably interested to know about guns in their neighborhoods. We obtained the names and addresses of Westchester and Rockland residents who are licensed to own handguns through routine Freedom of Information law public-records requests."

National Rifle Association spokesman Andrew Arulanandam said newspaper-compiled databases of legal gun owners and their permits serve no journalistic purpose.

“There is no legitimate need for any news organization to compile a list of law-abiding citizens who have concealed carry permits,” Mr Arulanandam told Fox News.

“There are serious security concerns. For example, some people who have carry permits have stalkers and these news organizations are essentially providing a lighted pathway to the homes of these individuals."

The Civitas Media Newspaper Chain

Now a year later, the Civitas Media Newspaper chain has a top editor who wants to do the same thing.

Jim Lawitz, Civitas’ Director of Content for The Civitas Media Newspaper chain, wrote an e-mail obtained by the Buckeye Firearms Association, "the database would examine the explosion of ‘conceal and carry’ gun permits across the U.S..” 

Jim Lawitz's Civitas Media memo went on to say, “Through public records act requests, we will attempt to build state-by-state databases that list those who have the right to carry a concealed weapon.” 

Later,  after the memo surfaced, Jim Lawitz tried to downplay the email when reached on Friday, saying the company had "no plans to publish" any lists or databases.

“In news organizations, a variety of ideas routinely are discussed, researched and planned, which may or may not result in published work,” Lawitz told Fox News.

He went on to say, “Typically we do not publicly comment on internal proprietary communication. However, we have no plans to publish any lists or databases of people’s names on conceal and carry.”

But friends, this memo wasn't from some low level liberal reporter, the Civitas Media internal memo was sent by Jim Lawitz who is in fact a top content editor to various editors at Civitas Media.

Let's understand the difference between The Journal News in New York compared to Civitas Media is huge.

The Journal News, owned by Gannett Company, has a circulation of about 84,000.
Civitas Media owns about 100 newspapers in 11 states with more than 1.5 million in total circulation.

The Jim Lawitz Civitas Media internal memo laid out a plan for an enterprise project that would use public information requests to establish the database.

The January 19th, 2014,  Civitas Media memo raised the prospect of a much larger version of a controversial project carried out in 2012 by The Journal News that made public an online map identifying legal gun owners in two counties by name and address.

It seems that some people, such as editor Jim Lawitz, have forgotten how The Journal News defended their actions even as it put people and their families at risk, many in mortal danger.

The database is the personal information of gun owners with permits which allow them to carry concealed weapons and Americans should expect some sense of privacy while exercising their legal rights.

So Did Civitas Media Consider Publishing A Multi-State Gun Permit Holder Database?

The short answer is no.

In an email after Fox News reported the story January 24th, 2014, Civitas President/CEO Michael Bush states that the Jim Lawitz memo should not have been sent and that the notion of such a project had been "rejected" upon consideration.

What sounds a lot like a newspaper chain doing damage control, Civitas President/CEO Michael Bush wrote to Fox News,

"Civitas Media never had any plans or intentions of publishing in print or online lists of holders of 'conceal and carry' permits. Nor will Civitas Media develop databases of permit holders. A poorly crafted internal memo meant to highlight editorial discussions and planning incorrectly indicated that such a database was being planned; it has been considered and rejected.”

Chad Baus, secretary of the Buckeye Firearms Association, told Fox News, that he received the email from a confidential source within the company who was “concerned” about the media group’s plans.

"The goal is to raise awareness because each and every time a newspaper organization does this type of thing, the public reacts very strongly to it,” Mr Baus said.

“There’s no other purpose for creating these lists but to target and victimize gun owners,” Baus told Fox News.

And yes, Chad Baus is absolutely correct.

While you and I see this as common sense in that we should expect some sense of privacy when exercising our legal rights, this is just another example of people in areas of responsibility who do not see things the same as we do.

Any information for bad guys can be used to hurt innocent people who are simply using their rights to defend themselves.

The idea of gun registration, gun owner registration, and databases full of information on us doing nothing illegal has gone way too far.

There is no reason that the government needs to compile and make available data regarding what we are doing when we are not breaking the law.

Liberals see gun owners as the problem. They see our rights to a means of self defense as being unneeded and wrong.

That is, unless it is themselves who need defending. Other than themselves, they don't care what happens - because they believe no one should put up a fight.

Remember, these are the same people who still blame women for defending themselves against it.  They do not recognize a person's rights and needs to self-defense.

So yes, President and CEO of Civitas Media, a national newspaper chain, now says it never intended to publish a multi-state gun permit holder database.

But why was it even considered? Why is it that one of their top editors sees nothing wrong with attacking legal gun owners? And really, why hasn't he been fired?

Lastly, we should be asking, is the database project only cancelled for now, or will Jim Lawitz try to get the database going and publish it in the future?

We should all thank Buckeye Firearms Association and other pro-Constitution organizations for staying vigilant to the likes of those who would attack the rights of law abiding Americans citizens.

Tom Correa

Saturday, January 25, 2014

Horse Thieves and Their Rendezvous, 1857

Dear Readers,

The article below, Horse Thieves and Their Rendezvous, was first printed in the Yreka Union and reprinted in the Sacramento Union, October 10, 1857.


The horse thieves, Henry Ingram, Chris. Lowry and Sam. Beringer, who were captured by Deputy Sheriff Uhl, of Shasta county, and of whose movements we have had some accounts heretofore, are evidently experienced adepts in their vocation of roguery.

The Yreka Union, in giving an account of some of their exploits, says :

Lowry and Beringer hired two horses at Forbestown, with the avowed intention of going to Oroville, brought them to this city and sold them to Mr. Butterfield and Maurice Baker.

The party seems to have been joined here by Mr. Ingram, who, it is thought, formerly resided on Indian Creek in this county.

The sale was effected by Ingram and Lowry, and the bill of sale signed by Beringer.

They were suspected here as the murderers of Rothenheim on Siskiyou Mountain, as soon as the news reached town, and the description of the men as given to our officers.

They fled towards Honey Lake Valley, and on the road thither stole two horse from Mr. Barbour, and also a saddle, which was used as a pillow, from under the head of an emigrant while he was sleeping.

The Sheriff and his assistants were close upon them, and finally overhauled them in Honey Lake Valley.

The Sacremento Union adds:

The party, no doubt, belongs to a regular organized band of robbers that infest the State.

Honey Lake Valley is undoubtedly the rendezvous of the most notorious horse thieves in the State, and the emigrants coming through that valley have frequently suffered the loss of stock, which have been driven off by these prowling thieves and charged upon the Indians.

The emigrants have often searched for two or three days after missing stock, and given them up as being run off by Indians.

Honey Lake Valley and other valleys in that vicinity are believed to be the pasture for a large amount of stolen stock, and many persons of a desperate character are said to reside there.

Friday, January 24, 2014

Fighting Indians in the Sierras

Dear Readers,

The article below is by Col. Albert G. Brackett, USA, entitled Fighting in the Sierras, written October 1891.

In his report, he recounts the events which took place while part of the California and Nevada Volunteers fighting Indians in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in the 1860s.

(by Col. Albert G. Brackett, 1891)

IT is proper to preface this article by saying that most of the facts have already been published in the Public Service Review by the same author.

An Indian war is always a serious matter, as it generally breaks out suddenly and there is no telling how far-reaching it may be in its effects.

The sparse settlements are overrun and many individuals killed before any relief can be afforded. The troubles in the States of Nevada and California in 1866 and 1867 have never been properly appreciated.

Bold and fearless bands of savages roamed at will over large extents of country, murdering unsuspecting and helpless people, and using the torch freely in the infant communities of the States mentioned.

Taking advantage of the disturbed condition of the Union during the Civil War, the red men thought it the proper time to avenge their fancied wrongs, and at the same time to add to their own wealth.

For years they had watched the immigrants as they slowly toiled across the continent, on their way to the new lands bordering on the Pacific Ocean, and having possessed themselves of good arms and a plentiful supply of ammunition, sought to arrest their progress, or at least to take from them what they had.

Being in no way scrupulous about the means adopted to bring about this state of affairs, they swarmed on the thoroughfares and occupied the dark defiles.

The California and Nevada Volunteers

The California and Nevada Volunteers had rendered good service in keeping back the insolent foemen, and Lieutenant-Colonel McDermit, of the Second Regiment of California Cavalry Volunteers, was killed by them in Nevada, in the summer of 1865, while out scouting and guarding the roads.

Colonel McDermit was a brave and cautious man, but while leading his horse down a mountain-side was waylaid by one of his wily foemen and shot dead at once.

This act greatly incensed the California Volunteers, who were a superior body of men, utterly fearless and untiring.

From that time forth they put forward their utmost efforts, and spared no pains to find the savages, who mainly belonged to the Piutes and Snake tribes.

Upon the death of McDermit, Lieutenant-Colonel Hooker, who was promoted to his place in the Second Regiment of California Cavalry Volunteers, took command of the District of Nevada, which he retained until mustered out of the service, and until the arrival of regular troops after the close of the Civil War.

He was a man of a good deal of energy of character, and had his head-quarters at Fort Churchill, some twenty-seven miles from Virginia City, near the banks of Carson River, a well-built post in the midst of a desolate region.

The mountains of Nevada furnished ample hiding-places, while the warm valleys were safe retreats during the cold winter season for the savages and their animals, as nearly all of them were mounted.

The care of the women and children is always a matter of great moment to the Indians while engaged on the war-path, and gives them the greatest anxiety.

An effective blow can always be administered to them by capturing their wives and little ones.

There is no better place to conceal considerable bodies of people than the rocky gorges of the mountains, many caves of considerable dimensions being found among the great lava-fields, to be met in all directions.

It must be borne in mind that these people had occupied this region for an indefinite period, and were well acquainted with all of its secret recesses and handsome valleys.

Food supplies of pine-nuts, acorns, grass-seeds, and tule, or flags, could be found easily, and tame cattle and horses made up the wealth of the red men.

They had a fair supply of clothing, but from infancy Indians are not well clad, and can endure a great degree of cold without much apparent suffering.

They wear clothing as much for ornament as for actual use, and, upon going into battle, like to strip off everything.

Their tactics in war do not differ from those of their kindred farther to the eastward, they deeming it the height of folly to expose themselves openly to the bullets of their enemies.

Every inequality of the ground is taken advantage of, as well as every root, tree, bush, rock, and shrub. They can conceal themselves behind the smallest objects.

The first action of any moment was fought by Captain George D. Conrad, with twenty-five men of Company B and twenty-five of Company I, under Lieutenant Duncan, all of the Second California Cavalry, who attacked the hostiles on the west aide of Quinn's River, near Fish Creek, on the 11th of January, 1866.

The savages fought well, but the determination of the volunteers soon caused them to give ground, though not until thirty-five of their number had been killed and nine captured.

Corporal Biswell and Privates Duffield, Riley, and Shultz were wounded, and several of the horses were killed and wounded.

This was quite a severe check upon the red men, and showed them that the time had arrived when the whites were determined to avenge the wrongs done them on so many occasions.

Their loss caused them deep grief; and there was wailing through the mountain region.

For the first time they began to realize the danger they were in, although none of them yet thought of coming in and giving themselves up and suing for peace.

They possessed great resolution, and having retained the advantage in numerous small encounters with the settlers, thought this was but a temporary disadvantage, and that in the next affair they would retrieve their fallen fortunes, and times would continue as they had been before.

In this they were mistaken, and were obliged to receive still greater chastisement.

On the 15th of February, 1866, Major Samuel P. Smith, of the Second California Cavalry, with a body of troops made up of volunteers and citizens, numbering in all eighty-one, encountered the savages near Rock CaƱon in Nevada.

A severe fight ensued, in which one hundred and fifteen Indians were killed and nineteen captured.

Private Austin, of Company D, was killed. Major Smith and Privates Resler, Grimshaw, Baits, and Rhuman, of Company D, and Privates Mills and Smith, of Company F, were wounded.

Major Mellen, Captain Starr, and Lieutenant Robinson, of the Second California Cavalry, were with the detachment.

Sixty horses which had been stolen from the settlers were recovered, and a large amount of Indian property was destroyed.

On account of the good conduct of Majors Smith and Mellen they were subsequently appointed officers in the regular army, the former a captain in the Eighth, and the latter a lieutenant in the Sixth Cavalry.

This was a very important affair, and reflected great credit upon the troops engaged.

At one time it was feared that the whole detachment would be cut off, but a vigorous onslaught, led by Major Smith in person, gave the whites possession of the strong grounds occupied by the enemy, who were soon put to flight with the losses above mentioned.

The foemen were considerably disheartened by this defeat, which was a severe one.

Sergeant James T. Edwards, while out with eight men of the Second California Cavalry, had an encounter with a war party in Paradise Valley, on the 7th of March, 1866, in which six Indians were killed.

The skirmish was conducted with great energy and skill, showing that the sergeant understood his profession well, and was prepared to make the best of the occasion.

By this time the Indians had been taught some lessons of prudence, and their head men no longer thought they could overthrow the whites so easily.

Their arms were of an excellent quality, having been purchased for them by unscrupulous white men who lived, in some instances, on terms of perfect equality with them.

At that day there was an abundance of money in Nevada, the silver mines turning out large quantities of bullion, and each of the Indians as chose to labor earned good wages.

The Washoe Indians, especially, were industrious and careful, and consequently had more of the comforts of life than they had ever before known.

These Indians were by no means friendly to the Piutes, and were glad to see them overthrown by the soldiers.

There was a good deal of bitterness of feeling, as the Washoes had been overpowered once by their enemies, when the best-looking women were taken away from them, and they were allowed to keep only a few horses.

Their task-masters had been very hard on them, and oppressed them in various ways, until they became little better than slaves of their conquerors, and it was at this time that they learned to work.

In April, 1866, Brevet-Colonel A. G. Brackett, major First Cavalry, took command of Fort Churchill, being in charge of the first regular cavalry sent to the Pacific coast after the close of the Civil War.

On the 18th of May one hundred and twenty Indian prisoners were brought in and delivered to him.

He placed them in camp on the banks of Carson River, where they constructed shades and shelters for themselves, being supplied with rations from the Subsistence Department.

On the 1st of June, Colonel Brackett assumed command of the District of Nevada. Shortly afterwards, Major-General Halleck, commanding the Military Division of the Pacific, visited the fort, on which occasion there was a brave array of friendly Pirate Indians, under Young Winnemucca, from the Truckee and Walker River Reservations.

These savages wished to do honor to the general, and were indeed a grim collection, all wishing to shake hands with him.

After this ceremony was finished the general expressed a desire to see some of their war-like exercises.

They retired a short distance, and, having mounted their horses, commenced moving off in front of him, Winnemucca, with his war-drum, being in front, mounted on a fine pony, without a saddle, and only a rope bridle; he was bareheaded, his long hair sweeping in the breeze.

The Indians followed in wild, irregular order, chanting their war-songs, and keeping time to the dull thumping of the war-drums.

Many of them were well dressed, a decided partiality for tall white hats and red shirts being perceptible among them.

Still their costumes varied from the buckskin shirt and moccasins of the wild tribes to the common clothing of the white men; but all of them were profusely ornamented with beads, feathers, and bright-colored blankets.

It is doubtful whether there has ever been a finer display of savage life within the limits of the State of Nevada.

After continuing this for some time, and having shown themselves to the best advantage, they suddenly halted in front of the general and commenced making speeches, through their interpreter, an Indian who had been educated in the Eastern States.

Winnemucca's speech was of considerable length, and gave great satisfaction to all concerned.

When he had finished, Big George, the peace chief, spoke, and then the general left them.

The Indians were very much pleased with their visit, and when General Halleck departed he directed a supply of rations to be issued to them, which gladdened their hearts.

A few days afterwards Winnemucca's Indians started for the Truckee Reservation, taking with them all of the Indian prisoners which had been brought in, the little ones being carried along in army wagons, much to their delight.

All went along pleasantly except one surly and insolent fellow, who was put in the guard-house for his bad behavior. His squaw sat down on the ground, utterly disconsolate, and had to be put in one of the wagons, and was trundled off with the rest.

They reached the reservation in safety, and there found peace and quietness.

A dreadful slaughter of a large party of Chinese occurred in the spring of 1866, near the line between Nevada and Idaho.

The party started from Virginia City, intending to go to the silver mines of Idaho. They had with them a four-horse wagon and an American driver, the men walking along the road as innocent and incapable of defense as so many school children.

They carried sluice-forks, umbrellas, and bamboo poles, and seemed utterly unconscious that there was any kind of danger. A few of the men had pistols, but even these they may not have known how to use.

However this might have been, they journeyed along until they came near a deep ravine leading into the Owyhee River, when they were suddenly assailed by a large band of Indians, who shot down those in front, who made no effort to defend themselves; in fact, those having pistols surrendered them to the savages, thinking in this way to conciliate them ; but the slaughter went on, until the whole of them, some fifty in number, were killed.

Never was there a more inhuman massacre.

The Chinese were willing to give up all they had on earth, but this would not satisfy the devilish spirit of the red men, who thirsted for blood.

The bodies of these poor creatures were left on the ground as food for the wolves and ravens swarming in that region.

After mustering out the volunteers, the troops in the district consisted of portions of the First United States Cavalry and Ninth United States Infantry.

On the 1st of June an Indian named Captain George was killed, near Camp McDermit, by a soldier of Company I, First Cavalry, and, on the 16th of the same month, an Indian murderer was killed near Fort Churchill, while endeavoring to escape, by Private John Gould, of Company F, Ninth Infantry.

In August the head-quarters of the district were moved from Fort Churchill to Camp McGarry, near Summit Lake, on the road leading to Idaho.

The Indians had been quite bold on this road, and attacked a train from Susanville, California, severely wounding one of the teamsters, who, returning the fire, left one savage dead on the ground.

The autumn passed away in comparative quiet, the Indians having concealed themselves in the mountains.

A small number spent the winter near Camp McGarry, coming in to the post occasionally at night and robbing the blacksmith's shop, and, though strict search was made, nothing of them could be found.

A long torch, made of the inner fibres of the sage-brush, by which fire could be preserved and carried for a long time, was discovered.

With snow covering the country for many miles around, it was a mystery how these people eked out a living.

About the 1st of January, 1887, Mr. Westover, the mail-carrier between Camp McGarry and Trout Creek, was captured and killed by the Indians.

Upon its being reported to the commanding officer, he sent out a detachment of twenty men, of the First Cavalry, under Lieutenant George F. Foote, of the Ninth Infantry.

This detachment was attacked by the savages on the night of the 7th of February, above the Vicksburg mines, near a cave, which was evidently their home and stronghold.

The Indians were driven off and followed until their trail was lost. Upon their return the soldiers burnt the huts of the savages.

Private William Hill was very severely wounded by the enemy, and Private Samuel Hollister was dangerously wounded by accident.

The following autumn the district commander was sent to Camp Bidwell, in California, with his head-quarters, and had been there but a short time when he was ordered to Camp McDermit in Nevada.

On the 25th of November, 1867, Captain James N. McElroy, who was out scouting with a part of his company of the Eighth Cavalry, a portion of which had been sent to the district upon its organization, discovered a party of Indians near the base of some hills, who retreated to the banks of Quinn's River, which they attempted to cross.

In so doing the soldiers attacked them, and two warriors were left dead on the field.

Lieutenant Aaron B. Jerome accompanied Captain McElroy on this scout, and in personal conflict killed an Indian who was pressing him too closely.

Nearly all of the troops were sent out from Camp McDermit for the purpose of engaging the Indians.

Captain John P. Baker, of the First Cavalry, succeeded in capturing quite a number, at the same time leaving three dead on the field.

In another scout, Lieutenant John Lafferty, of the Eighth Cavalry, killed two warriors with his own hands.

While the troops were absent, Colonel Brackett learned there was a large party in the vicinity of Eight-Mile Creek, and sending out Lieutenant Frank K. Upham, who was his acting assistant adjutant-general, with a party of soldiers, received the surrender of the whole band. This was on the 20th of November, 1867.

The savages had become disheartened by their several defeats, and were only too glad to lay down their arms.

In addition to the officers named, Captains Charles O. Wood and Frederick Mears, of the Ninth Infantry, and Captain James A. Hall, of the First Cavalry, had rendered excellent service in bringing about this desirable state of affairs.

About guarding the roads leading to Idaho, the editor of a Susanville, California, paper said,

"As many of our citizens are engaged in freighting goods to Idaho, and are constantly passing and repassing over this dangerous road, we have frequent opportunities of hearing their views with regard to the manner in which the route is protected. All with whom we have conversed on the subject are unanimous in the opinion that no officer could have done more, and few as much, as Colonel Brackett has done with the limited force at his disposal to make the route safe. All speak in the highest terms of the promptitude with which assistance has been rendered when needed, and are loud in their praise of the kindness and courtesy extended to them by Colonel Brackett and the officers and men under his command."

So far as Nevada was concerned, the war was ended, but certain bands in California continued to give some trouble.

A small remnant of the Nevada Indians went north, and was met by a force under command of Captain Samuel Munson, of the Ninth Infantry, in Warner Valley, Oregon, on the 1st of May, 1868.

In this fight the guide, Mr. Hoag, was killed, and Lieutenant Hayden De Lany was wounded, the latter receiving a brevet for gallant and meritorious service on that occasion.

In the affair the Indians evinced unwonted bravery, and, being well fortified behind rocks, a good deal of work was necessary to dislodge them, but the soldiers accomplished it.

Thus ended a serious Indian outbreak in Nevada, and peace was restored to the miners and settlers.

Old Winnemucca, who was the leading man among the Piute Indians, had, during most of these disturbances, been near Steen's Mountain, in Oregon, not caring to take part in the war.

He was a man of great power, and possessed of a far-reaching mind.

No one could concentrate the strength of the savages as he could, as was well shown at the battle of Pyramid Lake, in the month of July, 1860.

Young Winnemucca was not related to the old chief in any way, though he had the same name.

He, too, was a man of strong mind, who sought to elevate his people as much as was in his power.

Though a war chief he believed in peace, and thought cultivated farms, and the means of cultivation, excellent things, and things to be worked for.

He wished to strengthen his band, and was much pleased when the whole of the prisoners were turned over to him, as with their assistance he could open new farms and till more ground.

He was thoroughly reliable and trustworthy, and not addicted to gambling like many of his race.

He loved power, but did not wish to obtain it by questionable ways.

While all this was true with regard to this man, the same could not be said of many other members of his tribe, as it contained some skillful sharpers, who thought deception and dishonesty extremely praiseworthy.

The peace following the events here recorded was lasting, and of the utmost benefit to the white people. Never since has there been any serious outbreak.

The Indians have remained quietly on their reservations, or when off have been assisting the white men in their labors.

They work in nearly every department of labor, making efforts to secure good homes for themselves.

Quite a number are fair workmen, as carpenters, blacksmiths, horseshoers, ditchers, and gardeners. Half the men can talk enough English to make themselves understood about ordinary work.

They have done a great deal of farm labor, and are constantly adding to their stock of knowledge, so that they will soon be a desirable class of laborers.

Besides farming, their fisheries are valuable, the trout from the Truckee and Walker Rivers finding ready sale.

Their old feuds and misunderstandings have pretty much passed out of their minds, and all things have improved so far as they are concerned.

Having no incentive to go to war, they are rapidly learning the arts of peace, forming thrifty communities, and adding to the wealth and material prosperity of the States in which they dwell, forming a striking contrast to their condition twenty-five years ago.

During the disturbances in Nevada, there was a peddler passing through the Northern portion of the State, who had a two-horse wagonload of groceries, especially fine preserves. He was waylaid, in a lonely portion of the road, and killed.

The Indians then killed the horses and prepared for a great feast.

They encamped near the road, and, breaking open the cans and jars of preserves, poured the contents on the ground. What they could not use they were determined to destroy.

They remained until they ate up the two horses, having a notable feast, and all around they poured the preserves in great circles, out of mere wantonness.

They seemed to have a great partiality for horse-meat, and fairly gorged themselves.


Colonel U.S.A. (retired)
October, 1891