Friday, February 26, 2021

Our Founding Fathers Prepared Us For Today


Democrats today have a thinly veiled motive for what they are doing. Thinly veiled in the respect that it has become obvious to anyone not in denial that the mission of the Democrat Party is to turn our representative democracy into a totalitarian government, a police state. I have been saying this on Social Media for a long time, which inevitably gets me banned. 

As far as disguising their motive, they did much better in years gone by when they at least pretended to love America. These days, that's not the case. They must have determined that they have no need to pretend any longer. And with Joe Biden in office, their plans have been anything but covered up in any way. 

Joe Biden, less than three weeks before the 2020 presidential election, in an interview with ABC News' George Stephanopoulos talked about the dangers of governing like a dictator. Biden said, "You can’t [legislate] by Executive Order unless you’re a dictator." In just over one month, Biden has signed over 52 Executive Orders. Friends, that exceeds the number of days that he has been in office. That's called being a dictator, even by Biden's own definition. 

What is hard to understand is that with his political party, the Democrats, in control of Congress, one would think that he would legislate the things that he is putting into law instead of using his pen and issuing Executive Orders as if there are no limits to his powers as president. 

Of course, by doing the things that he is doing through edicts, he leaves them open to be overturned by a president like Donald Trump who works for us the American people instead of special interest groups or foreign countries like China and Iran. If he would go through Congress and at least give some sort of appearance of propriety, an incoming president who works for the people would find it very difficult to overturn a law or program passed by Congress. Yet, Joe Biden is bypassing the legislative process and Congress instead of acting as a dictator with zero checks and balances. 

While Biden lies to the American people by saying, "I'm not making laws, just removing bad policies," he is making laws with the stroke of his pen. All the while he does so, he is creating a dictatorial government ruled by edicts to put in place as laws. No, not laws passed in a Representative Democracy -- but edicts created by a despot who sees himself as all-powerful. 

As for attempting to create a totalitarian America, even one of the most prominent Democrat voices in the Democrat Party has come forward to say exactly that. Naomi Wolf, who served as an adviser to both Bill and Hillary Clinton, told Fox News host Tucker Carlson that in her view, the United States is swiftly "moving into a coup situation, a police state" as a result of Biden's ongoing coronavirus-related economic shutdowns and edicts. Wolf added that she believes the orders are being improperly extended under the "guise of a real medical pandemic." She said, "America is becoming a totalitarian state before our eyes" under President Biden's leadership.

Wolf went on to say, "The state has now crushed businesses, kept us from gathering in free assembly to worship as the First Amendment provides, is invading our bodies ... which is a violation of the Fourth Amendment, restricting movement, fining us in New York state ... the violations go on and on." 

She said, "Would-be tyrants always take when they want to close down a democracy... Whether they are on the left or the right, they do these same ten things, and now we're at something I never thought I would see in my lifetime ... it is step 10 and that is the suspension of the rule of law and that is when you start to be a police state, and we’re here. There is no way around it."

During her interview with Tucker Carlson, she said that she has interviewed Americans of various backgrounds and political affiliations. All are in a state of "shock and horror" as "autocratic tyrants at the state, and now the national level are creating this kind of merger of corporate power and government power, which is really characteristic of totalism fascism in the 1920s. They are using that to engage in emergency orders that simply strip us of our rights; rights to property, rights to assembly, rights to worship, all the rights the Constitution guarantees."

She went on to say, "The United State's overall response to the coronavirus pandemic has been completely unprecedented." She further stated, "Lockdowns have never been done in society, and really, we are turning into a totalitarian state before everyone's eyes."

Lastly, she observed, "I really hope we wake up quickly because history also shows that it’s a small window in which people can fight back before it is too dangerous to fight back."

But wait, Democrats in control of the federal government say their actions are to "defend the Constitution and uphold Democracy." They say this as they spread propaganda and misinformation by way of their control of the Mainstream Media. Make no mistake, they also say that while they create a totalitarian federal government. 

How? Through "emergency" pandemic edicts from Democrats in control of states like California and New York, and Joe Biden in the White House where he has signed more Executive Orders than days that he has spent in office -- just to usurp the Constitution that they say they are defending. 

Remember that pesky thing called the Constitution of the United States. I was asked to write an essay on the importance of the Constitution and the 2nd Amendment. I wrote to the people asking me to do so and advised them, that in my opinion, the Constitution is not being observed and has been rendered void today because of the pandemic. 

That's part of the Democrats' plan. Render the Constitution null and void by issuing emergency declarations not passed by any legislative body. Do so by usurping the Bill of Rights with a focus on concealing a citizen's right to Free Speech. Use the power of Big Tech and the Federal Government to attack anyone who disagrees with draconian policies and smash their ability to exercise their freedoms. All of their freedoms by declaring them "Domestic Political Extremist."  

Of course, among the Democrat Party's lies is the narrative that Democrats are pushing about the January Sixth, 2021, riot at the Capitol. The big lie there is that the riot was a "siege" and "armed insurrection." We know it is a lie because evidence has shown that they have lied. Yes, no different than Democrats lied recently about giving $700 Billion of American Taxpayer funds to foreign countries under the guise of "COVID Relief." 

By the way, less than 10% of that COVID Relief funds went to Americans, and now Congress is about to do it again. Again, they are putting the hardship and problems of Americans last. Instead of helping citizens, they are giving over a TRILLION dollars to everyone other than Americans in need.

As for their calling what took place on January 6th at the Capitol an "armed insurrection" when in fact, none of the rioters were armed with any sort of firearms that day, that hasn't stopped them from repeating that lie, and as propagandists know very well, repeat a lie over and over and over and people will believe the lie. It is an old tactic of the Democrat Party. In recent history, we all witnessed it first hand. At the same time, they repeated the Russia hoax over and over again until many, including some seemingly knowledgeable people, actually accepted the lie as the truth. 

But since I've been asked, let's talk about what an armed insurrection would look like if Americans decided to really take up arms against our federal government because of the totalitarianism that Democrats appear to want to install in leu of our Constitutional government.

First, let's talk about arms and numbers of Americans that would take part in an actual "armed insurrection" to make right the ship of state and restore our freedoms. So for the sake of argument, let's say that one out of ten legally armed Americans decides to show up at the capitol. How many armed citizens would that be? We're talking "legally armed citizens" and not those who have weapons that are not registered for whatever reason. 

Friends, if 1 in 10 shows up -- if that's all that feel the Constitution is worth fighting for, and frankly I know very well that more than 1 in 10 American gun owners feel the Constitution is worth fighting for -- then we are talking about 10.5 Million legal gun owners. Since government statistics show us that over 150 Million Americans own guns legally, my saying 10.5 Million will answer the call to defend freedom and right this sorry state we're in is probably an underestimate.   

Let's say that my low-ball estimate is closer to the truth and that only 10% will step forward to defeat those wanting to impose tyranny on our people. Let's put that in perspective. That's 5 times the number of personnel that we have in our entire military. That's 5 times the number of everyone in our military, including those support personal who have probably never fired a rifle since they graduated from Bootcamp. 

Let's put it this way to better understand the sheer numbers of actual armed Americans if we only look at 10 million, or 1/10th of the legal gun owners in America. Ten million armed Americans are more than all of the military personnel, the Communist Chinese military, the Russian military, the North Korean military, and the Iranian military forces, all combined. That's only one-tenth of all American gun owners. Imagine what an actual "armed insurrection" would look like if a quarter of all gun owners showed up for such an event.

Just one Million legal, law-abiding American gun owners are 1000 times the number of National Guard troops at the Capitol presently. And ask yourself, would they be a match for even 1 Million legally armed Americans nevertheless 10 Million if there really were an armed insurrection with the intent of stopping an oppressive regime in Washington D.C.? 

Remember how the Democrats had the National Guard vetted to remove every Straight-White-Hispanic-Asian-Black-Christian-Conservative from serving on the fence surrounding the Capitol presently because of the possibility that they were Trump Supporters? How many American soldiers will fire on Americans if they see they are supporting an oppressive totalitarian government? 
How many soldiers will violate their oath to protect and defend the United States' Constitution when the government has violated our Constitution? 

As a Marine, I swore an oath to protect and defend the Constitution, not prop up dictatorships disguised as our government. How many men and women around the Capitol right now feel the same way?

So now, how did our Founding Fathers prepare us for today for the situation that we are in today with a government that's clearly gone off the rails and is ignoring the Constitutional limits placed on it? Well, that's what the 2nd Amendment is all about. That's why it is included in our Bill of Rights. It was written so that free men and women can address such a threat from the government. It wasn't put in place to go hunting, or skeet shooting, or target practice. The 2nd Amendment was put in place to protect our Republic from people like those in high-office right now. 

Our Founding Fathers were suspicious of a too-powerful government. They were concerned about tyranny because they understood that men would sell their honor and integrity for less than thirty pieces of silver. They understood human nature and knew that men will seek high office with the desire to be rulers instead of representatives.

Our Founding Fathers understood full well that we need to guard against the corrupt power-hungry megalomaniac who will walk over dead bodies to gain power. Our Founding Fathers recognized that there would be people like Napoleon Bonaparte long before Napoleon Bonaparte was ever in power in France. Humans are like that. Sadly, one of the horrible aspects of human nature is that man can be power-driven and lust for control. Some in Washington prove that daily.

Our Founding Fathers understood what tyranny was because they lived through it. They felt the boot pressing on their throats as they strove to be free-men. They saw the horrors of war and knew full-well that an armed citizenry with the ability to outnumber the government can right the ship of state if need be. 

They wrote the United States Constitution to keep the government in check and restrain it from being too powerful because they understood that the government would be the oppressor if bad men controlled the government. They added the 10 Amendments to ensure that the government understood that there were rights that the government could not touch. In those Amendments, the government is told what they could not infringe upon. The government is told what the government was to leave alone. 

As sad as it is to say, I truly believe that our government representatives do not recognize that the Constitution limits government and speaks directly to representatives who want to tamper with the Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights is not talking to the American people. The Bill of Rights is warning representatives of our government to leave those rights alone. 

Those Amendments are addressing those in government who see them as an obstacle to gaining power and the framers wanted them to know that those rights are sacrosanct.  

The 2nd Amendment states, "A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms shall not be infringed."

When the framers wrote that, they were talking to our elected government. They were telling them, those in power, that this right is not to be violated. They were telling the government that they cannot ride roughshod over this right or the others. The framers believed that some rights are regarded as too important or valuable to be interfered with -- so it spelled it out by saying "shall not be infringed." Shall not be violated. It is lost on those in government today who see themselves as above the law and subsequently beyond observing any right as indispensable. 

Of course, that train of thought by some in Washington D.C. and many in State capitols today is why razor wire fences and troops are surrounding our Capitol today. Because those politicians are there to get rich and not work to enhance the lives of Americans, proof of such is the present administration's desire to make America energy dependant on foreign nations while putting thousands of Americans out of work, by the Biden administration putting American priorities last instead of first and foremost when it comes to worrying about the welfare of our people, today the Biden administration and the Democrats in control of Congress need troops to protect them against the American people.

To justify their placement of National Guard troops around our Capitol, Democrats have lied about an "armed insurrection" at the Capitol on January 6th, 2021, when rioters breached the Capitol's poor security and entered the building. Among the other lies is that a Capital Police Officer was killed by rioters when it has just been revealed that he died of a stroke -- sad as that is, that's no different from how at least one protestor died of a heart attack while there.

This takes me to the question asked by one of my readers. What would a real "armed insurrection" look like, and do I think it is possible? 

Well, I believe this. If Democrats want to see what an actual "armed insurrection" really looks like, then all they have to do is keep pushing the American people toward a 2nd Civil War. If that happens, there will not be enough razor wire and fences, nor military, to protect them from the 10 Million legally armed Americans who will show up at the Capitol to demand a change of government.

Yes, just as our Founding Fathers prepared us for by giving us the 2nd Amendment. If the government does not retreat from its quest for totalitarianism, they may find out that our Founding Fathers prepared us for such an assault on our Republic by those in government. 

I believe that there are a great many Americans who are prepared to defend our rights and die doing so. The question becomes if those who seek to enslave our people are willing to die trying to take our rights from us?

Tom Correa


Monday, February 22, 2021

The Exemplary Life of Marine Brig. Gen. Harry Liversedge


Yesterday morning, February 21, 2021, I had the honor of attending a ceremony remembering Marine Brigadier General Harry Bluett Liversedge and the flag-raising on Iwo Jima. As a member of Marine Corps League Mother Lode Detachment #1080, it was a real pleasure to be in the small nearby town of Volcano, California, yesterday for the observance.

The "town" of Volcano was once known as Soldier's Gulch. It sits at about 2060 feet elevation and has a population of about 101 people. Marine General Liversedge was born in that small California Gold Rush town on September 21, 1894.

While it is anyone's guess what sort of young man he was growing up, it's a safe bet to say that he was a typical American youth who celebrated America's greatness. And really, why not? We were in a period of economic prosperity, and the future was one of optimism and hope. America was already the champion of democracy due to freeing those under the Spanish colonial yoke in Cuba and the Philippines.

By the beginning of the 20th century, most Americans saw the old ways of suppressing citizens' rights in Europe as something that's needed to end. While at the same time that European Monarchies enslaved and kept their peasant class in place, their rule was being threatened by Socialists and Communists who wanted power to enslave subjects and keep the peasant class in check.

Americans saw feuding Europe pushing itself to war. And worse, some of the governments' actions, such as intentionally attempting to starve their own peoples made Americans want to act to remedy the situation in the same manner that Americans remedied Spanish oppression during the Spanish -American War.

Europe went to war in 1914, and the American Expeditionary Forces arrived in Europe in 1917 to turn the tide of war in favor of Britain and France. As for a young Harry Liversedge from tiny Volcano, California, he began his career as a Marine when he enlisted as a Private (E-1) in the Marine Corps in May of 1917 at the age of 21.

While I can't find information about his service in France other than the fact that he served with the 5th Marines, I suspect he saw action and distinguished himself in battle. What makes me suspect such a thing? For one thing, it's not every day that a young man enlists in the Marine Corps as a Private, and then a year and a half later is commissioned as a Second Lieutenant. But that was exactly what took place by September of 1918. Keep in mind that World War I would end two months later, on November 11, 1918.

Unlike many of the returning troops from World War I, with most looking forward to getting out of the service, Lt. Liversedge stayed in the Corps in Europe. It was there that Lt. Liversedge was selected for the 1919 Inter-Allied Games. In late May of that year, Lt. Liversedge passed the pre-selection for the Inter-Allied Games in Paris, France. In late June, he took part in those games and finished second in the shot put. By that July, he was promoted to First Lieutenant while serving with the Fifth Marine Brigade in France.

It wasn't until August of 1919 that he returned home to the United States. That was when he was ordered to the Marine Barracks, Quantico, Virginia, while awaiting orders to the Second Provisional Marine Brigade at Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, in October 1919.

It was in April of 1920 that he again home to the United States. But this time, his duty was much different than in previous situations. While in the Marine Corps, Lt. Liversedge played football in the Army-Marine Corps game at Baltimore, Maryland. That same year, Lt. Liversedge represented the United States in the 1920 Olympics at Antwerp, Belgium. This time he won a bronze medal in the shot put.

He returned home to the United States after the Olympic Games in 1920 and served a tour at the Naval Academy at Annapolis for almost 2 years. In March of 1922, he was ordered to Marine Barracks, Quantico, to serve as aide-de-camp to Brigadier General John Henry Russell.

If Marine Gen. John Henry Russell sounds familiar to my fellow Marines reading this, well, he should trigger a memory from a Marine Corps History class. As a younger officer, General Russell served on two different ships in command of ships' Marine Detachments. He later became Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps and then the 16th Commandant of the Marine Corps.

General Russell ended the old system of seniority promotions of officers. He changed it to a promotion system based on advancement selection. He also created the Fleet Marine Force to assumed greater importance which we still see today. He was the Commandant who placed more attention on Marine Reserves, and he increased the number of Navy ships carrying Marine Detachments.

It was Gen. Russell's time aboard ship as part of a ship's Marine Detachment that he, like that of Lewis Burwell "Chesty" Puller during his time in command of a ship's Marine Detachment, learned the importance of having a force of Marines in readiness aboard ships to respond anywhere around the world. That doctrine is why we now have Marines "afloat" for extended periods of time. We can land anywhere with short notice.

Lt. Liversedge participated in the Banana Wars in Haiti and the Dominican Republic before being ordered back to Quantico in August of 1922. He was then assigned to duty as aide-de-camp to the American High Commissioner in Haiti in December of that year.

By July of 1923, he was again assigned to Quantico to attend the Company Officers’ Course at the Marine Corps Schools. Upon completing his course, he was then transferred to the Marine Barracks at Mare Island, California, for 3 years. Lt. Liversedge served again in Quantico from September 1926 to February 1927 before being sent for duty in China. It was while in China that he trained his men on the skills of boxing.

In August of 1929, he was again in Quantico before being ordered to the Marine Corps Base at San Diego, California, where he was promoted to the rank of Captain in January of 1930. After almost two years there, he served as aide-de-camp to the Commanding General of the Department of the Pacific located in San Francisco.

As with General John Henry Russell and Chesty Puller, Capt. Liversedge served aboard ship in command of a ship's Marine Detachment. He was on the battleship USS California from June 1933 to June 1935, before he returned to Quantico, where he completed the Senior Course at the Marine Corps Schools by June of 1936.

Later, he was transferred to serve on the Basic School staff, Marine Barracks at the Philadelphia Navy Yard. It was there in July of 1936 that he was promoted to Major. By early 1938 he was again ordered to Quantico to serve with the First Marine Brigade.

By May of 1940, Major Liversedge was assigned to duty as the Inspector-Instructor, Fourteenth Battalion, Marine Corps Reserve at Spokane, Washington. Following his promotion to Lieutenant Colonel's rank in August of 1940, he was ordered to the Marine Corps Base, San Diego, where he took command of the 8th Marines, 2nd Marine Division.

As we know, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, was attacked by the Japanese Navy on December 7th, 1941. As with all of our services, the Marine Corps was hit that day. On that Sunday, there were about 4,500 Marines stationed at Pearl Harbor.

Besides the over 800 officers and enlisted Marines in Marine Detachments aboard the USS Arizona, USS California, USS Helena, USS Honolulu, USS Maryland, USS Nevada, USS Oklahoma, USS Pennsylvania, USS Tennessee, USS Utah, and USS West Virginia at Pearl at the time of the Japanese attack, there was Marine Aircraft Group 21 (MAG-21) at Ewa Beach and the Marine Barracks, including Marines of the 2d Engineer Battalion, 2d Service Battalion, 1st Defense Battalion (rear echelon), 3d Defense Battalion, 4th Defense Battalion, and a token element from the 6th Defense Battalion.

Marine Corps losses resulting from the attack on Pearl Harbor included 112 Marines killed and missing in action and at least 64 wounded. The heaviest Marine losses came from the ship's detachment of the USS Arizona. Of the 82 Marines that made up that Marine Detachment, only 3 officers and 12 enlisted men survived.

In January of 1942, Lieutenant Colonel Liversedge was placed in command of the Second Battalion, Eighth Marines located in American Samoa. By May, he was promoted to Colonel. And by August, he was placed in command of the Third Marine Raider Battalion. It was his Third Marine Raider Battalion that he led ashore at Pavuvu in the "unopposed occupation" of Russell Island.

He commanded the Third Marine Raider Battalion until March 1943, when he was given command of the newly organized First Marine Raider Regiment. It was with the First Marine Raider Regiment during the fighting on New Georgia Island, British Solomon Islands, that Col. Liversedge became the recipient of the Navy Cross.

Our nation's highest military award for bravery is the Medal of Honor. Just below the Medal of Honor in precedence is the Navy Cross. Col. Harry Liversedge's 1st Navy Cross citation reads:

LIVERSEDGE, HARRY BLUETT
Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps
1st Marine Raider Regiment

Date of Action: July 5 – August 29, 1943
The Navy Cross is presented to Harry Bluett Liversedge, Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps, for extraordinary heroism as Commanding Officer of the First Marine Raider Regiment and the Third Battalions of the 145th and 148th Infantries, U.S. Army, during operations on New Georgia Island, British Solomon Islands, from July 5 to August 29, 1943. Gallantly leading his troops through dense jungle into combat against a fanatic enemy long experienced in jungle warfare and well-entrenched in strong positions, Colonel Liversedge commanded the assault with cool and courageous determination. Although handicapped by extremely adverse weather conditions, constant enemy fire, and the difficult problems of supply, he skillfully coordinated his forces and those of cooperating units and relentlessly forced the Japanese to withdraw. Colonel Liversedge's aggressive fighting spirit and brilliant leadership contributed immeasurably to the success of the New Georgia Campaign and were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.

-- end of the citation.

By January of 1944, he was transferred to the 5th Marine Division and was placed in command of the 28th Marines. It is said, "He gallantly led the 'twenty-eighth' ashore in the Iwo Jima campaign, for which he was awarded a Gold Star in lieu of his second Navy Cross."

Imagine the scene, a 2-mile wide by 4-mile long island about 600 miles from Tokyo, Japan, is the location for one of the last great island-hopping campaigns of World War II in the Pacific Theater. It was this battle that would brand the United States Marine Corps and the Marines who serve forevermore.

After months of naval guns and air bombardment, thousands of U.S. Marines invaded Iwo Jima on February 19, 1945. For the next month, Japanese defenders who were dug into bunkers deep within the volcanic rocks waged an incredible bloody fight to keep the island.

History tells us that about 70,000 U.S. Marines battled against 18,000 Japanese Imperial soldiers. And while the island of Iwo Jima was finally declared "secured" on March 26, 1945, it came at a huge cost and is one of the bloodiest battles in Marine Corps history. The reason, in the end, after 36 days of fighting, nearly 7,000 U.S. Marines were killed, and 20,000 were wounded.

Securing Iwo Jima prepared the way for the last and largest battle in the Pacific Theater. That was the invasion of Okinawa. The Battle of Iwo Jima came at a high cost, but it also saved tens of thousands of lives for our U.S. Army Air Corps, which needed to run operations closer to Okinawa and the Japanese mainland.

As for the iconic flag-raising atop Mt. Suribachi? That took place on February 23, 1945. Yes, just five days after the battle began. As for the now-famous photograph of five Marines and one Navy corpsman raising the flag, Associated Press photographer Joe Rosenthal took the photon of the famous flag raisers Cpl. Harlon Block, Navy Pharmacist’s Mate John Bradley, Cpl. Rene Gagnon, PFC Franklin Sousley, Sgt. Michael Strank, and Cpl. Ira Hayes. Of those gallant men, Sgt. Strank, PFC Sousley, and Cpl. Block would die on Iwo Jima before the end of that battle.

The photograph of the Iwo Jima flag-raising was wired around the world and reproduced in newspapers across the United States. It was wonderful motivation for our country in those long days of sacrifice for the war effort. As for that photo, it was also used as a model for the Marine Memorial at Arlington National Cemetery.

Fleet Admiral Chester William Nimitz said of those who fought on Iwo Jima, "Uncommon valor was a common virtue." That statement is underscored by the 27 Medals of Honor awarded to Marines and Navy servicemen who fought there, the highest number awarded in a single American battle. Of those 27 men, 14 Medals of Honor were awarded posthumously.

In August of 1942, Congress made the Navy Cross a combat-only decoration that follows the Medal of Honor in order of precedence. Col. Liversedge's 2nd Navy Cross citation read:

LIVERSEDGE, HARRY BLUETT
Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps
Commanding Officer, 28th Marines, 5th Marine Division

Date of Action: February 19 – March 27, 1945
The Navy Cross is presented to Harry Bluett Liversedge, Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps, for extraordinary heroism as Commanding Officer of the Twenty-Eighth Marines, Fifth Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, from 19 February to 27 March 1945. Landing on the fire-swept beaches twenty-two minutes after H-Hour, Colonel Liversedge gallantly led his men in the advance inland before executing a difficult turning maneuver to the south preparatory to launching the assault on Mount Suribachi. Under his inspiring leadership, his Regiment affected a partial seizure of a formidable Japanese position consisting of caves, pillboxes, and blockhouses until it was halted by intense enemy resistance, which caused severe casualties. Braving the heavy hostile fire, he traversed the front lines to reorganize his troops and, by his determination and aggressiveness, enabled his men to overrun the Japanese position by nightfall. By his fighting spirit and intrepid leadership, Colonel Liversedge contributed materially to the capture of Mount Suribachi, and his unwavering devotion to duty throughout was in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.

-- end of his 2nd Navy Cross citation.

Following World War II, he served a tour of duty with the occupation forces in Japan. Then in March of 1946, he was ordered to the Marine Corps Base in San Diego. By that July, he was assigned as Director of the Twelfth Marine Reserve District and District Marine Officer of the Twelfth Naval District headquartered in San Francisco.

He served in that capacity until he was named Assistant Commander of the 1st Marine Division, Camp Pendleton, California, in February of 1948. In May of that year, Col. Harry Liversedge was promoted to Brigadier General. Fitting his rank, in May of 1949, he was placed in command of Fleet Marine Force, Guam, where he remained until April of 1950.

Brig. Gen. Liversedge had served briefly as Deputy Commander, Marine Barracks, Camp Pendleton, before becoming Director of the Marine Corps Reserve in June of 1950. Though he was known fondly throughout the Marine Corps as "Harry the Horse" because of his stamina and resilience, he died at the Navy Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, on November 25, 1951, at the age of 57.

During his 36 years in the service of our great nation as a Marine, in addition to the Navy Cross with Gold Star in place of a second Navy Cross, his decorations and medals including the Silver Star, the Bronze Star, a Presidential Unit Citation, the Victory Medal with France clasp and Maltese Cross, the Expeditionary Medal with bronze star, the Yangtze Service Medal for service in China, an American Defense Service Medal with base clasp, the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with three bronze stars, the American Campaign Medal, the World War II Victory Medal, and the Navy Occupation Service Medal for his service in Japan after World War II.

He was married to Kate Bluet Liversedge. They had one child. The website for Arlington National Cemetery says that he is, in fact, buried there in the Arlington National Cemetery. But, they note that "the Stockton Marine Corps Club honors Harry annually with a memorial at his gravesite in Pine Grove, California."


While I can't find proof that Brigadier General Liversedge is buried in Arlington National Cemetery other than the Arlington website stating that he and his wife are buried there, I can present you with the picture above of his grave in Pine Grove, California. 

I can also tell you that his monument in the town of Volcano is very nicely done. This is thanks to the Marines of our Marine Corps League Mother Lode Detachment #1080. Because of their efforts, the memory of this good man, this great American, this exemplary U.S. Marine, will not fade away.

Semper Fi General!

Tom Correa


Sunday, February 14, 2021

They Call It Chuck -- Provisions On A Trail Drive


Most of us interested in the Old West know Charles Goodnight and Oliver Loving decided to partner up to drive cattle to livestock markets wanting beef. That was in June 1866. It's said that while cattle were selling for $5 to $10 per head in Texas, they could get five times as much in the North. 

The demand for beef was there for a few reasons. The beef was needed to feed hungry settlers and soldiers, and also to meet government contracts to feed hungry Navajo which the U.S. Army had recently placed on reservations. But most of all, the demand made the cattle drive profitable because cattle were needed to ship to hungry Easterners after the Civil War.

While some might not realize it, those Post-Civil War cattle drives were not the first cattle drives. The first cattle drives were from Texas to San Francisco and the Gold Country in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in 1850. Cattle were selling for a great deal of money in the California Gold Country just a year into the Gold Rush.

There was a reason for that. With the massive influx of thousands of gold-seekers, both miners and merchants, they competed with the Native Indian population for wild game such as deer, bear, and turkey for food. Many Californians working on the ranches did the same as many others did and abandoned their jobs to go get rich in the hills and mountains. Because local cattle production dropped, and wild game was being depleted pretty rapidly, cattle from places like Texas and Southern California were seen as Godsends. 

The killing of wild game, the traditional food source for local Indian tribes was so bad, that Indians in the Sierra Nevada Mountains started killing and eating what became known as "Sierra Elk." In response to the lack of wild game caused by the significant number of newcomers, and in retaliation for killing and eating all of the game, Indians started stealing and eating the miners' mules.

Cattle drives to Northern California brought in a lot of profit for those willing to drive cattle North. After the Civil War, the country was in challenging economic times -- especially in the South. The war took a horrible toll on the nation. Food shortages were commonplace after the war, and Eastern meat markets needed cattle to meet the growing demand for beef. 

Charles Goodnight and Oliver Loving risk their lives trying to cash in on the need for cattle while making a considerable profit doing it. Goodnight did not use just one wagon for his cattle drive. I've read that he used two wagons. One was as a "Chuck-wagon" and the other as a "calf-wagon." 

It is said that Goodnight bought two extremely durable U.S.Army-surplus covered wagons that were used in the Civil War. The wagons were manufactured by Studebaker. Goodnight outfitted the two wagons for different purposes for his drive from Texas to New Mexico. 

On one, he bolted a "Chuck box" to the back of the wagon. The box had drawers and shelves for storage space and even a hinged lid that served as a flat work surface. It stored everything the cook and a helper would need to feed an outfit on a trail drive, including pots, pans, dishes, utensils, and more. On the Chuckwagon was also a "wagon-box," or two, which were used to store more cooking supplies and cowboys' personal effects. Bedrolls and arms were also carried on the Chuckwagon.

Here's a bit of trivia for you. As we know, "chuck" is a cowboy term for food. So why is that? Since "Chuck" is short for "Charles," and Goodnight designed of the first "cook-wagon," food is called "chuck" after Charles Goodnight. What started out as "Chuck's Wagon," later became "Chuck-wagon." 

While the Chuckwagon was for the cook and the cowboy's personal effects including bedrolls, it's a fact that some cattle drives included a second wagon to carry calves during the day. The calves were released to their mothers to nurse at night. The calves that were born on the trail may not have been strong enough to walk the drive. At least not initially.

Chuckwagons had at least one water barrel attached to it and they used a canvas that hung under the wagons to carry kindly and firewood. Because a lot of the territory was initially uncharted and no one knew where water could be had, the calf-wagons carried an extra water barrel or two. The calf-wagon was also outfitted with canvas slings to carry kindling and firewood. So if you've wondered where their kindling came from when there were obviously no trees around. Besides the firewood that they carried to start a fire, they also used Buffalo chips for fires.

It's a safe bet that about now you're wondering when I'll start talking about the provisions part of this story. Well, here it comes. While it's not much, I'll try to make it interesting.

Besides easy to preserve sacks of flour, salt, sugar, multiple sacks of dried beans, and coffee, they also carried with them meats that were preserved. To preserve food at the time, foods were canned and meats were salted, dried, or smoked. The meat they ate was known to be "greasy cloth-wrapped bacon, salt pork, and beef which were all usually dried, salted, or smoked." 

As for dried meats? Dried meats were very important to the cowboy, as well as the overall success of the cattle drives. Though drier and not as heavily seasoned, or tasty, as the jerky we have today, it provided needed protein and energy to the cowboys during their long days on the cattle drive. Besides hardtack, a cowboy always had some small pieces of dried meat in his saddlebag. Today's modern jerky is very similar to the cowboy version of dried meat from back in the day. 

Another reason it was prized is that it was so easy to pack into a saddlebag, and like hardtack, a cowboy didn't need a fire or cook it when wanting a piece at any time of day under any weather condition on the drives.

In the case of hardtack, it was baked and then baked again. What's Hardtack? I was once told that hardtack was extremely cheap to make and there was always hardtack in the Chuckwagon, as well as in a saddlebag of almost every cowboy on the trail.

Hardtack is said to date back to Ancient Rome. We know that it's been in America for ages. It's believed Mountain Men carried them, and so did pioneers, miners, soldiers, and cowboys. It's simply a large cracker, what the Brits refer to as a biscuit, made with flour, water, and a bit of salt. They are baked repeatedly to suck as much moisture out of them as possible. They are exactly as they are promoted. They are almost tasteless, endurable, "hardtack." Baking them many times meant that hardtack would not spoil.

How resilient is hardtack? Let's put it this way, it is said that "troops in the Civil War were issued hardtack that was actually made during the Mexican-American War fifteen years earlier." Yes, sort of like the freeze-dried MRE's that our military uses today. They last forever. 

Because hardtack is a bone dry large cracker that is extremely tough, and I did say dry, a lot of folks back in the day would soak it in coffee or water before eating it. As for a cowboy riding trail and wanting a "snack." It's wasn't unheard of for a cowboy to bite into hardtack and chase it with a sip of water from his canteen. The water would swell it in his belly.

During the Great Depression of the 1920s and 1930s, hardtack was a staple -- especially for the poor. When I was a kid, my grandparents used to buy saloon crackers (hardtack), break them up in a bowl and let them soak in milk before we ate them. No sugar, not so tasty. Add sugar, very tasty. It was then that I found out that sugar makes anything better.  

As for what was served on the cattle drive? 

It is believed that food was also gathered on the trail if found, but there were no fresh fruit, vegetables, or eggs. That's why cooks soaked dried beans and served a lot of beans daily. While they had a lot of names, some folks referred to them as "Mexican Strawberries." Sourdough biscuits were with every meal and had a few names including "sourdough bullets." While there is never pleasing everyone, sourdough biscuits were considered a treat.

Of course, cooks did serve beef and meats such as salt pork and bacon. Bacon was served and in some places was fondly referred to as "chuckwagon chicken." But as I said before, meats that they had were not fresh and were either salted, dried, or smoked. 

Fresh meats were usually a bison if a bison was found and harvested, or an animal that had to be killed. Fresh meat on the trail may have been one of the herd, that may have become injured and had to be killed. 

That leads us into talking about "Son-of-a-bitch Stew." We talked a little bit ago about the newborn calves. The calves that didn't make it even when they were helped by carrying them in the calf-wagon, actually ended up as part of the cattle drive's provisions. It was called "Son-of-a-bitch Stew" and it was made of the brains sweetbreads, and other voice pieces of a freshly killed calf. It's said that a cowboy would refer to it as "Son-of-a-Gun Stew" to be polite around women. 

It's said that cooks seeing cowboys walking over to them with hands full of pieces and parts of a calf automatically knew they lost a calf. While "Son-of-a-bitch Stew" was seen as a treat, most meals on the drive didn't vary too much.

As for cowboy coffee on the trail drives, it usually came with every meal and had a bite to it. Cowboy coffee was a must as it was the drink of the day. While canteens were filled with water, I was always told they were sipped with a prayer. Coffee was the go-to drink for breakfast, noon chuck, and supper. It was the go-to drink for the same reason that whiskey and beer was such a big hit in the Old West. The reason is simple, water in the Old West was notorious for giving folks the trots.

Let's keep in mind, Giardia is a microscopic parasite found in the soil, in food, and in water that's been contaminated with feces from infected humans or dung from animals. Cattle and bison caused giardia which caused diarrhea. Dysentery is caused by a parasite or bacteria that infects your intestines that causes bloody diarrhea.

During the Civil War, it's believed over 45,000 Union troops died of dysentery which was often spread through contaminated food or water. Some say as many or more Confederates died from dysentery only. Boiling water stops such water contamination. Coffee, whiskey, and beer are all products that are boiled, and subsequently safer than drinking water. Especially in the Old West. Yes, there are reasons why coffee, whiskey, and beer are good for us.

Tom Correa




Monday, February 8, 2021

The Great Cowboy Strike of 1883


A few years ago, I wrote an article about Labor Unions and the American Cowboy after a reader from Australia wrote to ask a curious question wanting to know if cowboys had Labor Unions in the American Old West?

As I said then, I have to be honest and say that this made me sort of laugh at first. I laughed because I figured that the last folks who would have ever want to start a Labor Union for themselves would have been cowboys back in the day. But frankly, I found out that I was wrong.

Though the era is known as the "golden age of cowboys" in the 1880s, America has always had cowboys in one way or another. The first American cowboys were those hands in Florida. They can trace their lineage to the 1500's Spanish Vaquero. The cowboys in the West, those originated from Spanish Texas and the Spanish California Vaquero traditions which were prevalent throughout the West, really didn't come about until much later.

As for ranches, the Spanish had ranches in North America long before the arrival of the Brits and other Europeans. Mexicans had cattle ranches long before the European settlers in Texas or California ever did. Fact is, American cattle ranching has only been around for a little more than 200 years.

Cattle ranching in our nation has established itself as a huge part of our American culture, A cattle rancher owns the ranch and the cattle. Ranchers hire workers. Today those workers can be anything from breeding specialists and nutritional in cow/calf operations to barn managers and mechanics to keep the machinery going.

It's true, modern cattle ranches are full-time livestock operations with a number of duties having to be performed. Our modern-day farms and ranches use permanent and seasonal hands, just as they did in the days back when the industry was new.

These days, besides the normal ranch work of branding and tagging, giving vaccinations, and being aware of calving and feeding, facilities need to be managed, fences and outbuilding need to be maintained, there are hay and grain storage that needs to be monitored and replenished, pastures have to be rotated and monitored, transport trucks and trailers need to be maintained, cow/calf programs that need to be monitored, and the list of duties goes on. 

From fixing water troughs to helping birth a calf, the jobs seem never-ending and can take place at all hours of any given day. Unlike most other industries, there are no such things as holidays and weekends. While some people have no clue what that means, it's simply this. Livestock operations are a 24/7 job. They have to be fed and tended to when other industries have weekends and holidays not having to deal with their businesses.

The only thing different about today versus the 1800s is that those days were as complex, especially with modern machinery to use and maintain. The American cowboy was a ranch hand that needed to be a Jack-of-all-trades so that he would able to maintain water troughs, fences, barns, stables, irrigation, harvesters, firebreaks, as well as ranch harnesses and saddlery, and much more. No, American cowboys didn't just work from atop a horse as some would like to think. 

I tried explaining to someone wanting to hire on at a ranch when I was there helping out during a gathering. For some odd reason, he thought ranchers hired painters to paint their barns, plumbers to fix irrigation systems, others to cut and bale hay, and others do the other things that need to get done on a working ranch. He was absolutely surprised that cowboys didn't just wake up, have breakfast, and then jump in the saddle -- and stay there all day until it was time to eat again. He had absolutely no idea how educated the American cowboy has to be to know how to do so many trades. 

I remember telling the young man during our lunch that being a cowboy took more smarts than simply being able to ride a horse. The ranch owner told him that he wouldn't need a hand that thought all there was to cowboying was roundup and riding horses. 

One of the things that have not changed over the years is that cowboys worked for ranchers then and they do today with an employee/employer relationship. Just as some bosses are not the easiest people to get along with today, including some ranch bosses, cattle ranchers were not always the easiest bosses to get along with back in the day. As is the case today, some bosses were condescending individuals who treated those working for them horribly.

Of course, some ranches were a lot better to work for than others. While most were great places to work, it's said that some ranchers treated their men no differently than slave labor with below normal wages, hard work, and little sleep. Those ranchers were known to skimp on food and even bunkhouse needs. Many of the bunkhouses were known to leak in the rain, be freezing in the winter, act as sweatboxes in the stifling heat of summer, all while the beds were lice-infested. 

Again, let me say that that wasn't the majority. And really, there were things that changed how cowboys were treated. For example, during the heyday of the cattle boom from 1867 to the winter of 1886 and the big die out, it's said a cowboy had his choice of ranches to hire on to. In those days, cowboys were pretty much able to pick and chose who they wanted to work for simply because the need for hands was great at the time. Whether he was White, Mexican, or Black, a cowboy could work for the ranch that treated him the best. 

The number one reason that cowboys in the 1880s were treated so well is that they were plentiful because so many were needed. Later when the cattle boom went bust, that changed in a lot of cattle outfits. For many, because of money restraints and cutbacks in the numbers of hands needed, things turned sour and life for a cowboy became miserable on the ranch.

While some say the romantic notion of cattle ranchers treating hired hands well is very much a storyline fabricated in Hollywood, that's not exactly the whole truth. There were several ranches that treated cowboys harshly and with very little respect. While that was typical for a lot of ranches for a number of reasons, we should understand that the majority of ranches did treat their hands very well -- more as family members than mere employees. 

So why were some ranchers great to work for while others weren't? Well, the primary reasons for that had to do with economics and in some cases who owned the ranch. In the West during that time, a large number of ranch owners became Eastern investment companies and corporations. 

Along with that, several were ranches owned by Europeans -- primarily British who saw themselves as Lords and the American cowboy as a non-essential servant instead of an integral part of a cattle operation. That caste system extended to the wealthy of the Americans East. There were wealthy Easterners who saw their employees as belonging to not merely a lower social or economic rank, but as crude uncouth ill-bred lower class people lacking culture or refinement. 

In Europe, the wealthy saw lowly peasants as a class of agricultural laborers. Today, there are those on the Left and in the entertainment industry and mainstream media who mock and ridicule, show open contempt for rural Americans in the exact same way that the wealthy upper-crust in the 1800s showed their disdain for "a country person."

What most really don't understand is that Westerners didn't have control of the cattle industry in the West at that time. And along with taking control, Eastern and foreign investment companies and corporations had an unfriendly way of treating their employees. And as far as many ranches were concerned, especially those owned by European Cattle Barons, cowboys were more like subjects, and the rancher was royalty. It's true, many of the ranches owned by Easterners and Europeans saw themselves as being superior to cowboys. They saw cowboys as a lower class of people.

Remember, the first cattle drives started in 1867. But within less than 20 years, there would be a beef glut. As I said before, initially, cowboys were needed by the score. And with the closing of open ranges and the end of cattle drives, fewer and fewer cowboys were needed. By the end of the cattle boom in the late 1880s, it's said that there were thousands of cowboys out of work. And for those working in serval ranches run by Eastern and foreign investment companies and corporations, the conditions were pretty bad in most cases.

Because of this, a number of the cowhands gathered together to form a Labor Union. They even went on strike. They did so because they wanted better wages, better working conditions, and compensation for their expenses. The first major national labor union was the Knights of Labor. It was the Knights of Labor Union that attracted a small number of Texas and Kansas and even Oregon, Montana, and Wyoming cowhands to join.

The Knights of Labor, officially known as the Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor, was the largest and most important labor organization in America in the 1880s. The Knights promoted the social and cultural uplift of the workingman while rejecting Socialism and Anarchism which many other labor Unions would adopt around World War I. For me, I find it interesting that the Knights of Labor are said to have fought for an eight-hour day while promoting the ethic of Republicanism.

Today it is better known as the Cowboy Strike of 1883.

In West Texas during that time, a large number of ranch owners were investment companies and corporations from back East. And yes, a large number of ranches were also owned by Europeans. It is said that the folks from back East and those in Europe actually gained control of the ranching industry in the West at that time. Along with taking control, those companies and corporations had an unfriendly way of treating their employees. And as far as some of the Easterners were concerned, cowboys were merely employees. As for the Europeans, they saw cowboys as peasants.

Along with looking at hired hands as mere employees, many of the traditions held in place for years were then being dismissed. For example, on some ranches, bunkhouse doors were left unlocked so that an out-of-work cowboy passing through could have a place to rest and maybe grab a bite to eat. In exchange, it was said that he would perform a few odd jobs such as mending a fence or chopping wood. Well, that stopped.

Another example is that it was customary to allow a cowboy working on a ranch to have the option of taking part of his pay in calves, usually unbranded "mavericks." They were allowed to even run small herds on their employer's land.

As some folks might not know, "mavericks" are unbranded range cattle. They were usually calves that had become separated from their mothers. Traditionally, these were considered the property of the first person who brands it. And yes, for many a cowboy these cattle were seen as the foundation of a ranch of their own in the future.

Well because the mavericks were seen as company property, the cattle ranchers put a stop to that immediately. Those ranch owners were only interested in expanding their holdings and increasing their profits. And to the surprise of many at the time, another huge change that took effect was that ranchers started to insist that cowhands work only for wages and be treated no differently than any other laborer.

Where a cowboy's loyalty was to the brand, the brand's loyalty in many cases was not returned. In fact, loyalty in many cases became a thing of the past thanks to new business practices in the cattle industry at that time.

For example, besides ranches making their cowhands work for wages, the work also became seasonal. Cowboys were literally let go depending on the workload of the ranch operation. Prior to that cowboys were seen more as part of the ranch. Once cowboys became seasonal workers, they were seen as just temporary help.

Of course, as anyone who has worked on a ranch can testify, ranching requires long hours and many skills even back then. Most cowboys in the early 1880s were paid on average about $40 a month, and room and board. There were problems with that since ranching is an ongoing operation, as I mentioned earlier how it still is today.

So now, some speculate that the problems between cattle ranchers and working cowboys may have had been because of the class systems which were prevalent back East and in Europe. Some say it was a notion on the part of cattle ranchers that they were superior to those they employ. But for whatever reason, the ranchers created a great deal of discontent among the cowboys in the region. Yes, so much discontent that a large number of cowboys decided to strike.

One source states that it was six ranches. Another source states that the 2½ month-long strike was against five ranches. Some have said those ranches were the LIT, the LX, the LS, the LE, and the T Anchor. Either way, in late March of 1883, cowboys a number of ranches drew up an ultimatum demanding higher wages, better working conditions, as well as better living conditions.

They submitted their demands to the ranch owners. It's said that 24 cowhands signed the letter. Their piece of paper set March 31st as their strike date. The original organizers of the strike actually established a small "strike fund." They also spread the word to other ranches to persuade other cowboys in the area to honor the strike.

Reports on the number of people involved in the strike ranged from 30 to 328. Actually, the number changed as men joined and deserted the walkout. The number was about 24. And since it's said that timing is everything, it was the wrong time for a "Cowboy Strike."

What made it the wrong time for a labor strike? With a full month remaining before the spring roundup, ranchers had plenty of time to hire out-of-work cowboys to replace the striking cowboys. And besides having the time to hire, they could actually fire anyone they saw as having "bad attitudes." Because of the lack of work for cowboys at the time, and the horrible economy in the United States in general, the strike fizzled.

But even though that was the case, the strike did change a few things for the better. Some ranches put on a few more permanent hands instead of seasonal hands. Some increased wages. Also, some ranches cleaned up the bunkhouses and were said to have put on better chuck for their hands.

As for those two dozen strikers, most of the ranches affected by the strike simply fired them. Of course, most of the affected ranches even went a step or two further than that and created a "Blacklist" to "Blackball" some cowboys who they saw as angry, in some cases threatening, or agitators. Since most ranches belonged to various Stockman's Associations there in Texas, for many years many of those Associations kept lists of the names of those cowboys who had been "Blacklisted" or "Blackballed" from working as a hand.

Many of those "Blacklisted" were the cowboys who were the organizers. Although, some were cowboys who threatened new hires, replacement cowboys, ranch managers, and even threatened the manager's families. In a horrible move, it's said that some of the strikers threatened the children of those ranch managers and the children of the cowboys who had families living at the ranches. 

Proving that they should have simply ridden away and hired on somewhere else more to their liking instead of striking and threatening others, almost all of the cowboys blacklisted would never work as cowboys again and were forced to move on. They either found work as cowboys somewhere other than in Texas or simply found other occupations as a result of being "Blacklisted." Many were branded for the rest of their lives as bad hombre and worst.  

While they may have gotten a few things changed for the better, the strikers learned what it was to be blacklisted and labeled as "trouble makers" and "possible assassins." They were shunned in their towns and then banned from working as cowboys in Texas forever.

Tom Correa

Friday, February 5, 2021

American Cowboys Are Not Immune To The Ill-Effects Of Politics


Energy, machinery, feed, and labor costs to ranchers and farmers are skyrocketing with the recent White House cuts to America's oil production. The White House's actions will certainly raise the price of food while putting many Americans out of work. As usual, the hardest hit will be those of us at or below the poverty line who are having it tough already. There is good news. 

The good news is that ranchers and farmers will not close their operations because of the extreme cold weather. They will still battle the ice, snow, inability to work in white-outs, the freezing cold wind while still tending their livestock. 

While praying that their machinery works and fences remain standing, they'll also pray that not too many cattle are lost to the frigid elements, starvation, and lack of water because water troughs are freezing. They will also pray that they stay healthy enough to do what needs to be done in a job most Americans can't do. 

While ranchers and farmers are the most unappreciated workers in America today, they do this to ensure America is fed. Do they get thanks? Rarely unless it's from someone like you who is reading this blog. 

What do I mean by that? Well, it goes to your interest in the American cowboy, the American livestock producers, those of you who are smart and understand that ranchers and farmers feed Americans. 

Believe it or not, as horrible as it sounds, there are Americans who have no idea that dairy farmers and dairy cows are where milk comes from. Those same ignorant people have no idea that American livestock producers raise beef, pork, and chicken to keep Americans fed. 

I was just told by someone that she comes here to learn about the American cowboy's life. But she only wants to know about the life of the American cowboy in the Old West. She said there is too much discussion about politics today, and she knows that American cowboys don't care about politics.

While many of us are fed up with politics today, how can anyone say that a hard-working group of Americans doesn't care about politics? Think about that for a moment. 

Why is politics so important, and why should we all be very concerned with it? One definition states, "Politics (from Greek: "affairs of the cities") has to do with the activities of the government, members of law-making organizations, or people who try to influence the way a country is governed."

American cowboys, just like their employers and all of the support elements of livestock production, are not immune to what goes on in politics, It would be great if some of us were, but that's not the case at all. The reason is straightforward: the affairs of our government affects us all. 

How politics affect us is all about how government affects our society. The effects of sudden changes can be catastrophic when government policy changes for the worse. Good intentions as some decisions are, those decisions not thought out and only brought to fruition as the result of political favors to a special interest group can be absolutely disastrous.

How do politics affect the American cowboy? We can start with the basics by using the recent White House cuts to oil production as an example. As I stated earlier, the White House's actions will certainly raise the price of food while putting many Americans out of work. As usual, the hardest hit will be those of us at or below the poverty line who are having it tough already.

So, where does the American cowboy come in? Well, while his role is essential to the operation of getting cattle to your local market, he is one player in the web of what it takes. Believe it or not, while there are people who think that cattle producers simply buy cattle, feed them, and then sell them, anyone in the cattle business who love it if life were that simple.

So, where do we start? Cost. Everything in ranching and farming is based on cost. When oil production on a national level is cut, the operating cost of everything goes up drastically. 

For example, steer and heifer calves' prices go up because of all of the costs suppliers face. As with the rancher, his cost breakdown is usually in the same range as his supplier. Ranches have permanent employees and seasonal employees. In California, the minimum wage is $12 an hour. In Utah, the minimum wage is $7.25 an hour. I'm not saying that livestock workers are paid either rate. In fact, as a norm, ranchers pay the national average wage for livestock workers, which is $14.00 per hour -- which includes the employer's share of payroll tax (USDA ERS). 

Labor and shipping costs, while trying to hold down its cost impact, is usually 15 to 16% of a cattle producer's business cost. Marketing costs impact 6%. Operating interest and ownership costs, combined with cash expenses, usually tend to impact an operation by 20%. Reproduction, Veterinary and health range anywhere from 10% of the impact costs. Feed and supplements are the biggest cost involved. While using private pasture, maybe public lands, and still having to bring in the hay, straw, corn, and supplements, feed and supplements cost around 48%. 

Ideally, to stay in business, a cattle producer tries to hold their total expense to 68 to 70%, which would give them a profit margin of 30 to 32%. So with that, as you can see by looking at all of the costs involved, by the White House creating a situation where total expenses rise far way over the 70% mark, a business may face lay-offs, fewer seasonal employee hires, wage reductions, employee hours cut, less of an ability to raise the number of cattle when the cost was lower, and possible default and closure. 

Is it a domino effect? Yes, it is. But worse, it impacts the employees away from the job as well. Remember that the American cowboy, like truck drivers, electricians, mechanics, plumbers, Veterinarians, tradesmen and women, store clerks, and everyone else in America, is also a consumer. 

By the White House stopping oil production, fuel prices and consumer goods' cost from clothing to food increases in price. By the White House enabling OPEC the opportunity of gouging the American public, our paying power goes down because our paycheck cannot buy as much as it did under a previous administration. 

American cowboys are not uneducated people. They understand what impacts our daily life. When prices go up, they understand when they may face lay-offs, when they too have their hours cut, when they too have to cut essentials, go without medical, dental, or insurances, or worse -- food. And that's why it's silly to think the American cowboy would not be concerned about what our government is doing. 

Hard times are nothing to laugh at. The White House should not purposely put our nation in an Economic Depression because it wants to please its special interest donors. In this case, wealthy Climate Change advocates say the world will end in nine years. 

The only people who don't worry about hard-times are the wealthy who don't feel the pinch like the rest of us do. That is the case today, just as it was the case throughout our history. Sadly for us, politicians sending money overseas instead of to the American people are the same who are killing jobs. 

Politicians don't care about Americans because they are both out-of-touch and don't care. They are the very wealthy who don't care if the American cowboy -- or any other American -- is out of a job. Being wealthy and bowing to their special interests, Washington politicians are disconnected from the problems of the rest of America. Frankly, I think they could care less about what happens to our people. 

Tom Correa


Sunday, January 31, 2021

Going Old West For Self Defense Today -- Let's Talk Shotguns


Here's a question that I get from readers fairly often, "Can someone use Old West guns for self-defense purposes today?"

My first response to that question is usually, "Why not?"

Well, I've put off answering this question simply because I didn't know if this would interest you. But after thinking about it off and on for some time now, I've decided that now seems like a good time to talk about using firearms from the Old West for self-defense purposes today. Of course, what might surprise you is how long some technologies have been around -- technologies that we still use today.

First, shotguns are shotguns. Whether it's in the Old West or today, a shotgun's simplicity and usefulness really hadn't changed since the days when folks came West carrying grandpa's black-powder handed-down shotgun. I've said this before, it's my belief that the gun that really won the West was the American shotgun.

Those shotguns which were handed down from generation to generation in most American families were used for hunting both small game and birds, as well as used for self-defense when it came to protecting one's family. Shotguns have, as always, the ability to be used by even the most inexperienced shooter -- and be proficient with it when doing so. Whether it was back in the day or today, a person armed with a shotgun does not need a lot of practice to learn to be competent when wanting to hit what they aim at.

That ability to grab a shotgun and be fairly competent even though you aren't someone who shoots a lot speaks to the fact that shotguns are not complicated and extremely easy to use. As for the myth that all shotguns in the West had exposed hammers, what some of us like to affectionately call "rabbit-ears," the first hammerless shotgun was produced in the late 1870s.

So no, one doesn't have to use a "rabbit-ear" shotgun, one with exposed-hammers, to think that he or she is using a shotgun like those used in the Old West. And while I've talked about how lawmen used side-by-side double-barrel shotguns as "town tamers," they have not lost their effect today. In fact, I don't think anyone would argue that shotguns can still stop a fight by merely being present. They can intimidate and change the attitudes of would-be bad guys faster than most things. They did in the Old West, and they do today.

Side-By-Side Double Barrel Shotguns

Loading the old standby side-by-side shotgun is as rudimentary as can be. Make sure the safety is on and the gun pointed in a safe direction. As always, you should always treat any gun as though it were loaded -- even if you know for certain that it isn't.

The first step in loading a side-by-side "break action" shotgun is to open the breech. You can do that by finding and engaging the barrel breech lever. While some of the first side-by-side shotguns had the breach lever located on the bottom and even on the side of the guns, today the lever will usually be on the top of the gun. On most shotguns, it will be located between the safety and where the barrels meet the stock.

On most shotguns, moving the breech lever to the right will open the breach and drop open the barrels. The shotgun will be ready to load or extract the spent shells when you open the break-action and lower the barrel away from the stock of the shotgun.

If there are spent shells, then remove and discard the spent casings. With most side-by-side shotguns, the spent casings should be ejected automatically. In some cases when they don't, then you may have to use your hands and take them out. You should keep in mind that the spent shells might still be hot after being just fired. In that case, try not to touch the metal of the barrel if possible since it might be hot as well.

Replace each of the used casings with a fresh shell. While it is virtually impossible to put the shotshell in wrong, remember that the business end of the shell should be the end that you slide into the barrel.

Once you have a couple of shotshells loaded, bring the barrel back up and close the breach. You should hear the break-action closing and feel it click shut. With that, your side-by-side shotgun is now loaded and ready to fire.

In 1875, the first self-cocking mechanism is said to have been pioneered by British inventors Anson and Deerley for their hammerless shotgun. Their idea was to have the movement of opening the action of the breach be used to cock the gun at the same time. Their invention is still used almost unchanged to this day.

So now, how does American inventor Daniel Myron LeFever fit into this story? Well, Daniel Myron
LeFever is credited with the invention of the first American hammerless shotgun. Working out of Syracuse, New York, he introduced his first hammerless shotgun in 1878. But his gun was not a "self-cocker." His shotgun was cocked with external-cocking levers on the side of the breach. So no, it wasn't a "self-cocking" shotgun. But, that didn't stop him from inventing a shotgun that would do that and more.

Daniel M. LeFever went on to patent the first truly automatic hammerless shotgun in 1883. That shotgun automatically cocked itself when the breech was closed. And, he later developed the mechanism that automatically ejects the shells when the breech is opened. So, believe it or not, by the late 1880s hammerless self-cocking shotguns that ejected their spent rounds were commonplace in the Old West.

What's the difference between the "hammerless, self-cocking" shotgun and one with exposed hammers "rabbit-ears"? Break-open actions are the most common type used for shotguns, and a hammerless shotgun will cock itself when it is open and closed. The exposed hammer shotguns don't. In the case of shotguns with exposed hammers, a shooter has to physically cock the hammers back into firing-position after closing the breach with new shells.

Also, for a hammerless shotgun, after you close the breach, its safety is probably engaged. So yes, it's probably on safe as soon you closed the barrels. The button that operates the safety has to be off before you can fire.

I know some folks who have shotguns with the safety disabled so that there's no fussing with the safety when the breech is closed during loading. Their reasoning is that they want their shotgun ready to go once the break is shut. I wouldn't recommend disabling a safety.

Double-barreled shotguns, both the side-by-side and the over-under, are the safest shotgun to own because anyone can see if they are loaded when the action is broken open. If the action is open, the gun cannot fire. Even though that's the case, there is no need to disable a safety since the simplicity behind loading and unloading a double-barrel shotgun already makes it extremely easy for even the novice who is forced into a situation of protecting himself or someone else in mortal danger.

Pump-Action Shotguns

As for pump-action shotguns, the first slide-action (pump-action) shotgun patent was issued to British inventor Alexander Bain as far back as 1854. American firearms inventor Christopher Spencer came up with his version in 1890. None other than the famous American inventor John Moses Browning followed up a few years later with his pump-action shotgun in 1893.

We know that when John Moses Browning built the Winchester Model 1893, that he lived to see it become the first commercially successful pump-action shotgun. As for his knowing how much we would all love pump-action shotguns, that is something that we will never know. We love them because of their functionality and their durability. We love them because they work. It is because of those factors that millions have been bought.

As for loading a pump-action shotgun, as with any gun, make sure the barrel pointed away from you in a safe direction. This is always the first step when handling and loading any firearm. The shells are loading into the tube-magazine from under the chamber.

While I've seen some people close the chamber by sliding the action forward and loading the tube-magazine from under the gun, I like to turn the gun upside down after sliding the action shut. As with a side-by-side, the shells slide in with the "business end" of the shells pointing toward the "business end" of the gun barrel. The "business end" is the end that the shot comes out of. It is the opposite end of where the metal shell cap and primer on the shell are located.

Load a single shell against the loading flap just ahead of the trigger guard by using your thumb to push the shell straight into the loading flap. Do that until you hear and feel a distinct click. That click is the rim of the shell passing over the magazine catch. Push it in until you hear that click indicates that it is securely in the tube-magazine.

Follow that up with another shell, and another, and another, until the tube-magazine is full. You can tell the tube-magazine is fully loaded when you attempt to load a shell but it won't go in.

As for operating the pump-action? Locate and hold in the action release button. Then pump the slide backward. That will slide the bolt to the rear while taking a shell from the tube-magazine. A lifter arm puts the shell into position to be chambered. Pump the slide forward with a reasonable amount of force to load the chamber. This will put you ready to fire. Yes, the shotgun is now ready to fire.

After firing, pump the slide backward. You will notice that the spent shells are ejected. When you pump the slide forward again, that repeats the process and readies your shotgun to fire again. Repeat the action until you need to reload the tube-magazine again.

Semi-Auto Shotguns

I would not consider semi-automatic shotguns as being part of the guns used in the Old West simply because they came about in 1903 with the Browning Automatic Shotgun. Semi-automatic shotguns did become very popular during the years leading up to World War I. And it's said that while it was a favorite of bird hunters, it's also said that lawmen at the time and during Prohibition enjoyed the fact that they could unleash five rounds very quickly while only using their trigger fingers.

Lever-Action Shotguns

While I know that Chinese made lever-action shotguns are seeing a bit of a spike in popularity these days as a result of their use in Hollywood movies, the most successful lever-action shotgun in the Old West was the Winchester Model 1887.  It was designed by John Browning in 1885. 

But that didn't stop Winchester Repeating Arms Company from wanting to market a lever-action shotgun for reasons of brand recognition. Remember, Winchester was best known for manufacturing lever-action rifles firearms at the time. So it was their thought that they could capitalize on their lever-action reputation with a lever-action shotgun.

The result was the Winchester Model 1887 which specified using black-powder. It had a following at first, but its sales declined. After ten years of poor sales, Winchester came out with their Model 1897 which used smokeless-powder cartridges. It's said that John Browning advised Winchester against coming out with the Model 1897 because he felt the lever-action design was inferior to the pump-action design which was taking the market by storm.

The popularity of the Winchester's Model 1887 and Model 1897 dropped as the demand for pump-action shotguns took off. The result was that Winchester stopped production of the Model 1887 and Model 1897 shotguns because of poor sales by 1920. That was a very short run for a firearm. Of course, it should be noted that lever-action shotguns diminished in popularity because they gained a reputation as being unreliable when compared to the steadfast durability and ease of function of pump-action shotguns.

As for pump-action shotguns, like that of a basic design of double-barrels, it's a technology that has endured the test of time. And yes, they really part of the Old West.

So now, to answer the question, can guns from the Old West be used today? As we know, the answer is yes -- especially when it comes to shotguns. Its basic technology has been around longer than most realize and they still work.
 
While gunmakers today can tinker with adding multiple tube-magazines, increasing shell capacity, using pistol grips and even lasers, the basic technology of getting a shotshell from a magazine and into a chamber has not changed since the 1800s. Gunmakers still make double-barrel shotguns and pump-action shotguns because that technology is time tested.

Our knowing that hammerless side-by-side double barrel and pump-action shotguns have been around since the days of the Old West should tell us something. Their longevity shows us that they can still be a perfect choice for self-defense purposes today. They were used routinely in the Old West, and no one can deny that they can't be very effective today. The reason is simple -- they work so well.

Next time, we'll talk about Old West pistols and rifles that can certainly be used today in cases of self-defense and keeping predators away from our livestock.

Tom Correa


Monday, January 25, 2021

Hard Times, Come Again No More by Stephen Foster 1854


Hard Times, Come Again No More
Published 1854 by American Songwriter Stephen Foster

Hard Times, Come Again No More - Sung by Thomas Hampson

"Hard Times Come Again No More" is a 19th Century American song written by the famous American songwriter Stephen Foster. It was published in New York by Firth, Pond & Co. as Foster's Melodies No. 28 in 1854. 

Original Lyrics:

1.
Let us pause in life's pleasures and count its many tears,
While we all sup sorrow with the poor;
There's a song that will linger forever in our ears;
Oh! Hard times come again no more.

Chorus:
'Tis the song, the sigh of the weary,
Hard Times, hard times, come again no more.
Many days you have lingered around my cabin door;
Oh! Hard times come again no more.

2.
While we seek mirth and beauty and music light and gay,
There are frail forms fainting at the door;
Though their voices are silent, their pleading looks will say
Oh! Hard times come again no more.

Chorus:
'Tis the song, the sigh of the weary,
Hard Times, hard times, come again no more.
Many days you have lingered around my cabin door;
Oh! Hard times come again no more.

3.
There's a pale drooping maiden who toils her life away,
With a worn heart whose better days are o'er:
Though her voice would be merry, 'tis sighing all the day,
Oh! Hard times come again no more.

Chorus:
'Tis the song, the sigh of the weary,
Hard Times, hard times, come again no more.
Many days you have lingered around my cabin door;
Oh! Hard times come again no more.

4.
'Tis a sigh that is wafted across the troubled wave,
'Tis a wail that is heard upon the shore
'Tis a dirge that is murmured around the lowly grave
Oh! Hard times come again no more.

Chorus:
'Tis the song, the sigh of the weary,
Hard Times, hard times, come again no more.
Many days you have lingered around my cabin door;
Oh! Hard times come again no more.
Hard times come again no more.

Because of its message which is a plea for mercy during tough economic times, the song became extremely popular in both America and Europe. To the credit of its creator, and its message, the song has endured the test of time since being written in 1854.

This song was popular through the hard economic times that followed our first Civil War and with those who suffered during the Great Depression of the 1920s and 1930s. And today, the song speaks to the struggle that we are all experiencing as a result of the COVID plague. With millions of Americans being out of work because thousands of businesses were forced to close to isolate the virus, relief for many is seemingly nowhere to be found.

While the first audio recording was made by the Edison Manufacturing Company in 1905, this song has been recorded by many artists including many today. And while it has been recorded many times over the last 167 years, it has also been recorded in multiple languages around the world. Besides the fact that it has endured, the fact that it speaks to the suffering of all is a lasting testament to its enduring message.

Tom Correa


Tuesday, January 19, 2021

President Trump's "America First" Policy Makes America Greater


Dear Friends,

I served in the Marine Corps under Presidents Nixon, Ford, Carter, and Reagan. And in my lifetime, I've seen presidents who have not always put our nation's best interest first. If you're thinking that I'm referring to Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton, and Barack Obama, then you'd be right. 

Since some of you have written and asked me to address the Trump Administration's accomplishments, I can say without hesitation that President Trump has been the hardest working, most positive, most motivating, absolutely inspiring president that I've ever seen for myself. 

Please understand where I'm coming from. Looking at the qualities of greatness in a president, I most admire Presidents George Washington, Abe Lincoln, U.S. Grant, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin D. Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, Ronald Reagan, George W. Bush, and Donald J. Trump. 

All of these presidents were faced with huge challenges. These president ere met with creating a nation, fighting and winning a Civil War in a fractured nation, the Reconstruction Era and the violence that ensued, fixing inequities and taking on monopolies, the Great Depression and World War II, the Cuban Missile Crisis, a wrecked National Economy that some compared to the Great Depression at the height of the Cold War, the attack on 9/11, and of course a struggling economy in a divided nation that was hit with a once in a century plague that has killed millions around the world.  

Of course, all of the presidents that I list above, in fact, had enemies both in their own political party and in the opposition party. All were slandered and demeaned. All were crucified and ridiculed by the media for one thing or another. To my knowledge, other than Washington and FDR, there were calls to Impeach all of the others both formally in Congress and informally in the media. And other than Washington, all of the others that I list above were targeted for assassination. 

What made them admirable is that they had what it took to stay the course, to pursue goals beneficial to Americans while remaining resolute, goals that made them unpopular in the media, all while still working tirelessly to keep the nation's spirits up. 

Newspapers attacked George Washington relentlessly. Papers saw any action relating to the Washington administration that smacked of monarchy as a chance to attack our first president. When newspapers in the North ran by Copperhead Democrats attacked Abraham Lincoln's intelligence and leadership, and even his looks, while those same Democrat controlled-newspapers worked to reunite the United States with slavery intact, President Lincoln stayed the course. When U.S. Grant created legislation to fight the Ku Klux Klan and give equal rights to black Americans, he was fought the whole way by Democrats who refused to see black Americans as equals. And worse, those Democrats created the Klan to terrorize, intimidate, and murder. So no, it's no wonder that Democrats created segregation, Jim Crowe laws, separate but equal laws, hate groups like the Klan, attempted to disenfranchise black Americans from voting, and fought Equal Rights for black Americans all the way up to and including the 1964 Civil Rights Act.

When Teddy Roosevelt wanted to stop child slave labor, break-up monopolies that were no different than what Big Tech is today, or create the Panama Canal, he was attacked mercilessly in the papers and in Congress by both Democrats and Republicans. When FDR created the New Deal, he found critics on the far Left and on the Right. Believe it or not, even American poet Robert Frost was a critic of FDR's social-net programs. 

As for John F. Kennedy, about seven years or so ago, Forbes magazine asked the question, "could  JFK be elected as a Democrat in today's America?" They surmised that he was too pro-military, too pro-American, pro-Capitalism, and too much for lowering taxes for all to be elected as a Democrat today. But, they found, he would surely win as a Republican. Most probably don't know that President Trump's Tax Plan of cutting taxes for all Americans was what JFK said he wanted to do to increase spending at all levels of our society. Trump wanted to be non-reliant and energy-independent echoed President Kennedy's policies. 

Remember when Democrats said, "President Trump lowering taxes would stop the Federal government from continuing social programs"? Have you noticed how Democrats didn't bother to think like that recently when they gave over $700 Billion American tax dollars in our 2020 COVID Relief package to foreign countries? I'm sure I'll repeat myself, but yes, it's a fact that Democrats controlling Congress gave over 90% of the COVID Relief Bill to foreign countries and not to Americans in need. 

Remember how Democrats said the Federal government didn't have $5 Billion for a wall, a security barrier, at our Southern Border? Isn't it amazing that among that money that Democrats sent to those foreign countries -- billions of American taxpayer dollars will go toward the building of walls and security barriers in Middle-East nations? 

As for the hatred ginned up in the biased Mainstream Media against Ronald Reagan, it was pretty obvious. But frankly, it was not as obvious as the Left's hatred for George W. Bush. And while they were mocked and ridiculed daily, nothing compares to the vile attitudes and horrible behavior of Democrats against President Donald J. Trump. I have never seen so many actors, celebrities, and politicians actually come out and incite insurrection and the assassination of a president as we've all been exposed to during the last four years. 

And for what reason? Democrats made no secret of their hate for President Trump at every opportunity. They were against his giving all Americans a tax cut, for caring about our safety, for not wanting to be part of a civil war in Syria, for many, many reasons that simply don't sound very good. And really, for more than anything else, for President Trump making Americans and our welfare his number one priority. 

Trump Administration Accomplishments Is About Putting America First

To sum up the Trump Administration, one has to admit that he has put the interest of Americans ahead of those in other countries. The result of President Trump's "American First" policy has made our nation greater, put us in a better standing around the world, created an unprecedented economic boom, a safer America, a return to our's being a land of opportunity, and much more. All despite the opposition, open hostility, and outright antagonism of the Democrat Party who has fought his "America First" policy at every turn for the last four years.

Here's something else President Trump has achieved. He has brought the Democrat Party out of the closet and into plain view for who they really are. In the last 4 years, President Trump's "America First" policy has had the effect of making the Democrat Party come forward and reveal their Socialist agenda. 

Because of President Trump, Democrats have shown that they are more concerned with funding Communist dictatorships like Cuba and Venezuela and hostile actors on the international stage like Iran and China. Democrats have shown the world that they care more about giving foreign countries our tax money, in fact giving away over 90% of America's COVID Relief Funds to other nations instead of to Americans in need. 

Because of President Trump, Democrats have revealed themselves as anti-Americans business, against American manufacturing, against our being oil independent, against ensuring our safety or our security. But besides. President Trump's achievement of showing how Democrats are against our economic prosperity, by really no fault of his own, he achieved getting the Democrats to reveal how vicious, vile, underhanded, and truly anti-American they are. 

While I thoroughly believe President Trump's "American First" policy makes America greater, as I said before, the bottom line is that it would be an act of treason, an act of cruelty and hate for the American people, on the part of the Democrats if they try to reverse any or all of President Trump's achievements. 

It is a sad day when Americans have to worry and wonder if Democrats were purposely going to scuttle our economy to institute total control. It is a sad day when Americans have to fear retribution for Free Speech of showing our support for a presidential candidate of their choice. While these things are usually reserved for Third World dictatorships ran by Communist oligarchies, that is exactly what the Democrat Party has proven to be. Yes, sadly, that's where we're at today. 

For me, because of his vast achievements and exposing the vile nature of the Democrat Party for what it is, I believe President Donald J. Trump is the greatest president in my lifetime. Yes, even greater than my boyhood hero JFK and fellow Californian Conservative Ronald Reagan. 

While I thoroughly believe President Trump's "America First" policy makes America greater, the bottom line is that it would be an act of treason on the part of the Democrats to try to reverse any or all of President Trump's achievements. And since a Trump Hater took the time to write me a horribly disgusting letter demanding that I give evidence of President Trump's accomplishments while in office, I figured I would oblige that mouthy individual. 

The Trump administration's accomplishments were provided to the public by the White House during the Trump Administration. I have checked every one of the items listed to ensure that this is a factual true list. I can assure you that it is while not covering all of his accomplishments. 

The below list was taken from the White House website "Trump Administration Accomplishments" before it was taken down by the Biden Administration. Here is the list:

Unprecedented Economic Boom

Before the China Virus invaded our shores, we built the world’s most prosperous economy.
  • America gained 7 million new jobs – more than three times government experts’ projections.
  • Middle-Class family income increased nearly $6,000 – more than five times the gains during the entire previous administration.
  • The unemployment rate reached 3.5 percent, the lowest in a half-century.
  • Achieved 40 months in a row with more job openings than job-hirings.
  • More Americans reported being employed than ever before – nearly 160 million.
  • Jobless claims hit a nearly 50-year low.
  • The number of people claiming unemployment insurance as a share of the population hit its lowest on record.
  • Incomes rose in every single metro area in the United States for the first time in nearly 3 decades.
Delivered a future of greater promise and opportunity for citizens of all backgrounds.
  • Unemployment rates for African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Native Americans, veterans, individuals with disabilities, and those without a high school diploma all reached record lows.
  • Unemployment for women hit its lowest rate in nearly 70 years.
  • Lifted nearly 7 million people off of food stamps.
  • Poverty rates for African Americans and Hispanic Americans reached record lows.
  • Income inequality fell for two straight years, and by the largest amount in over a decade.
  • The bottom 50 percent of American households saw a 40 percent increase in net worth.
  • Wages rose fastest for low-income and blue-collar workers – a 16 percent pay increase.
  • African American homeownership increased from 41.7 percent to 46.4 percent.
Brought jobs, factories, and industries back to the USA.
  • Created more than 1.2 million manufacturing and construction jobs.
  • Put in place policies to bring back supply chains from overseas.
  • Small business optimism broke a 35-year old record in 2018.
Hit record stock market numbers and record 401ks.
  • The DOW closed above 20,000 for the first time in 2017 and topped 30,000 in 2020.
  • The S&P 500 and NASDAQ have repeatedly notched record highs.
Rebuilding and investing in rural America.
  • Signed an Executive Order on Modernizing the Regulatory Framework for Agricultural Biotechnology Products, which is bringing innovative new technologies to market in American farming and agriculture.
  • Strengthened America’s rural economy by investing over $1.3 billion through the Agriculture Department’s ReConnect Program to bring high-speed broadband infrastructure to rural America.
Achieved a record-setting economic comeback by rejecting blanket lockdowns.
  • An October 2020 Gallup survey found 56 percent of Americans said they were better off during a pandemic than four years prior.
  • During the third quarter of 2020, the economy grew at a rate of 33.1 percent – the most rapid GDP growth ever recorded.
  • Since coronavirus lockdowns ended, the economy has added back over 12 million jobs, more than half the jobs lost.
  • Jobs have been recovered 23 times faster than the previous administration’s recovery.
  • Unemployment fell to 6.7 percent in December, from a pandemic peak of 14.7 percent in April – beating expectations of well over 10 percent unemployment through the end of 2020.
  • Under the previous administration, it took 49 months for the unemployment rate to fall from 10 percent to under 7 percent compared to just 3 months for the Trump Administration.
  • Since April, the Hispanic unemployment rate has fallen by 9.6 percent, Asian-American unemployment by 8.6 percent, and Black American unemployment by 6.8 percent.
  • 80 percent of small businesses are now open, up from just 53 percent in April.
  • Small business confidence hit a new high.
  • Homebuilder confidence reached an all-time high, and home sales hit their highest reading since December 2006.
  • Manufacturing optimism nearly doubled.
  • Household net worth rose $7.4 trillion in Q2 2020 to $112 trillion, an all-time high.
  • Home prices hit an all-time record high.
  • The United States rejected crippling lockdowns that crush the economy and inflict countless public health harms and instead safely reopened its economy.
  • Business confidence is higher in America than in any other G7 or European Union country.
  • Stabilized America’s financial markets with the establishment of a number of Treasury Department supported facilities at the Federal Reserve.
Tax Relief for the Middle Class

Passed $3.2 trillion in historic tax relief and reformed the tax code.

  • Signed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act – the largest tax reform package in history.
  • More than 6 million American workers received wage increases, bonuses, and increased benefits thanks to the tax cuts.
  • A typical family of four earning $75,000 received an income tax cut of more than $2,000 – slashing their tax bill in half.
  • Doubled the standard deduction – making the first $24,000 earned by a married couple completely tax-free.
  • Doubled the child tax credit.
  • Virtually eliminated the unfair Estate Tax or Death Tax.
  • Cut the business tax rate from 35 percent – the highest in the developed world – all the way down to 21 percent.
  • Small businesses can now deduct 20 percent of their business income.
  • Businesses can now deduct 100 percent of the cost of their capital investments in the year the investment is made.
  • Since the passage of tax cuts, the share of total wealth held by the bottom half of households has increased, while the share held by the top 1 percent has decreased.
  • Over 400 companies have announced bonuses, wage increases, new hires, or new investments in the United States.
  • Over $1.5 trillion was repatriated into the United States from overseas.
  • Lower investment costs and higher capital returns led to faster growth in the middle class, real wages, and international competitiveness.
Jobs and investments are pouring into Opportunity Zones.
  • Created nearly 9,000 Opportunity Zones where capital gains on long-term investments are taxed at zero.
  • Opportunity Zone designations have increased property values within them by 1.1 percent, creating an estimated $11 billion in wealth for the nearly half of Opportunity Zone residents who own their own home.
  • Opportunity Zones have attracted $75 billion in funds and driven $52 billion of new investment in economically distressed communities, creating at least 500,000 new jobs.
  • Approximately 1 million Americans will be lifted from poverty as a result of these new investments.
  • Private equity investments into businesses in Opportunity Zones were nearly 30 percent higher than investments into businesses in similar areas that were not designated Opportunity Zones.
Massive Deregulation

Ended the regulatory assault on American Businesses and Workers.

  • Instead of 2-for-1, we eliminated 8 old regulations for every 1 new regulation adopted.
  • Provided the average American household an extra $3,100 every year.
  • Reduced the direct cost of regulatory compliance by $50 billion, and will reduce costs by an additional $50 billion in FY 2020 alone.
  • Removed nearly 25,000 pages from the Federal Register – more than any other president. The previous administration added over 16,000 pages.
  • Established the Governors’ Initiative on Regulatory Innovation to reduce outdated regulations at the state, local, and tribal levels.
  • Signed an executive order to make it easier for businesses to offer retirement plans.
  • Signed two executive orders to increase transparency in Federal agencies and protect Americans and their small businesses from administrative abuse.
  • Modernized the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for the first time in over 40 years.
  • Reduced approval times for major infrastructure projects from 10 or more years down to 2 years or less.
  • Helped community banks by signing legislation that rolled back costly provisions of Dodd-Frank.
  • Established the White House Council on Eliminating Regulatory Barriers to Affordable Housing to bring down housing costs.
  • Removed regulations that threatened the development of a strong and stable internet.
  • Eased and simplified restrictions on rocket launches, helping to spur commercial investment in space projects.
  • Published a whole-of-government strategy focused on ensuring American leadership in automated vehicle technology.
  • Streamlined energy efficiency regulations for American families and businesses, including preserving affordable lightbulbs, enhancing the utility of showerheads, and enabling greater time savings with dishwashers.
  • Removed unnecessary regulations that restrict the seafood industry and impede job creation.
  • Modernized the Department of Agriculture’s biotechnology regulations to put America in the lead to develop new technologies.
  • Took action to suspend regulations that would have slowed our response to COVID-19, including lifting restrictions on manufacturers to more quickly produce ventilators.
Successfully rolled back burdensome regulatory overreach.
  • Rescinded the previous administration’s Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing (AFFH) rule, which would have abolished zoning for single-family housing to build low-income, federally subsidized apartments.
  • Issued a final rule on the Fair Housing Act’s disparate impact standard.
  • Eliminated the Waters of the United States Rule and replaced it with the Navigable Waters Protection Rule, providing relief and certainty for farmers and property owners.
  • Repealed the previous administration’s costly fuel economy regulations by finalizing the Safer Affordable Fuel-Efficient (SAFE) Vehicles rule, which will make cars more affordable and lower the price of new vehicles by an estimated $2,200.
Americans now have more money in their pockets.
  • Deregulation had an especially beneficial impact on low-income Americans who pay a much higher share of their incomes for overregulation.
  • Cut the red tape in the healthcare industry, providing Americans with more affordable healthcare and saving Americans nearly 10 percent on prescription drugs.
  • Deregulatory efforts yielded savings to the medical community an estimated $6.6 billion – with a reduction of 42 million hours of regulatory compliance work through 2021.
  • Removed government barriers to personal freedom and consumer choice in healthcare.
  • Once fully in effect, 20 major deregulatory actions undertaken by the Trump Administration are expected to save American consumers and businesses over $220 billion per year.
  • Signed 16 pieces of deregulatory legislation that will result in a $40 billion increase in annual real incomes.
Fair and Reciprocal Trade

Secured historic trade deals to defend American workers.

  • Immediately withdrew from the job-killing Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP).
  • Ended the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and replaced it with the brand new United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA).
  • The USMCA contains powerful new protections for American manufacturers, auto-makers, farmers, dairy producers, and workers.
  • The USMCA is expected to generate over $68 billion in economic activity and potentially create over 550,000 new jobs over ten years.
  • Signed an executive order making it government policy to Buy American and Hire American, and took action to stop the outsourcing of jobs overseas.
  • Negotiated with Japan to slash tariffs and open its market to $7 billion in American agricultural products and ended its ban on potatoes and lamb.
  • Over 90 percent of American agricultural exports to Japan now receive preferential treatment, and most are duty-free.
  • Negotiated another deal with Japan to boost $40 billion worth of digital trade.
  • Renegotiated the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement, doubling the cap on imports of American vehicles and extending the American light truck tariff.
  • Reached a written, fully-enforceable Phase One trade agreement with China on confronting pirated and counterfeit goods and the protection of American ideas, trade secrets, patents, and trademarks.
  • China agreed to purchase an additional $200 billion worth of United States exports and opened market access for over 4,000 American facilities to exports while all tariffs remained in effect.
  • Achieved a mutual agreement with the European Union (EU) that addresses unfair trade practices and increases duty-free exports by 180 percent to $420 million.
  • Secured a pledge from the EU to eliminate tariffs on American lobster – the first United States-European Union negotiated tariff reduction in over 20 years.
  • Scored a historic victory by overhauling the Universal Postal Union, whose outdated policies were undermining American workers and interests.
  • Engaged extensively with trade partners like the EU and Japan to advance reforms to the World Trade Organization (WTO).
  • Issued a first-ever comprehensive report on the WTO Appellate Body’s failures to comply with WTO rules and interpret WTO agreements as written.
  • Blocked nominees to the WTO’s Appellate Body until WTO Members recognize and address longstanding issues with Appellate Body activism.
  • Submitted 5 papers to the WTO Committee on Agriculture to improve Members’ understanding of how trade policies are implemented, highlight areas for improved transparency, and encourage members to maintain up-to-date notifications on market access and domestic support.
Took strong actions to confront unfair trade practices and put America First.
  • Imposed tariffs on hundreds of billions worth of Chinese goods to protect American jobs and stop China’s abuses under Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 and Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974.
  • Directed an all-of-government effort to halt and punish efforts by the Communist Party of China to steal and profit from American innovations and intellectual property.
  • Imposed tariffs on foreign aluminum and foreign steel to protect our vital industries and support our national security.
  • Approved tariffs on $1.8 billion in imports of washing machines and $8.5 billion in imports of solar panels.
  • Blocked illegal timber imports from Peru.
  • Took action against France for its digital services tax that unfairly targets American technology companies.
  • Launched investigations into digital services taxes that have been proposed or adopted by 10 other countries.
Historic support for American farmers.
  • Successfully negotiated more than 50 agreements with countries around the world to increase foreign market access and boost exports of American agriculture products, supporting more than 1 million American jobs.
  • Authorized $28 billion in aid for farmers who have been subjected to unfair trade practices – fully funded by the tariffs paid by China.
  • China lifted its ban on poultry, opened its market to beef, and agreed to purchase at least $80 billion of American agricultural products in the next two years.
  • The European Union agreed to increase beef imports by 180 percent and opened up its market to more imports of soybeans.
  • South Korea lifted its ban on American poultry and eggs, and agreed to provide market access for record exports of American rice.
  • Argentina lifted its ban on American pork.
  • Brazil agreed to increase wheat imports by $180 million a year and raised its quotas for purchases of United States ethanol.
  • Guatemala and Tunisia opened up their markets to American eggs.
  • Won tariff exemptions in Ecuador for wheat and soybeans.
  • Suspended $817 million in trade preferences for Thailand under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) program due to its failure to adequately provide reasonable market access for American pork products.
  • The amount of food stamps redeemed at farmers markets increased from $1.4 million in May 2020 to $1.75 million in September 2020 – a 50 percent increase over last year.
  • Rapidly deployed the Coronavirus Food Assistance Program, which provided $30 billion in support to farmers and ranchers facing decreased prices and market disruption when COVID-19 impacted the food supply chain.
  • Authorized more than $6 billion for the Farmers to Families Food Box program, which delivered over 128 million boxes of locally sourced, produce, meat, and dairy products to charity and faith-based organizations nationwide.
  • Delegated authorities via the Defense Production Act to protect breaks in the American food supply chain as a result of COVID-19.
American Energy Independence

Unleashed America’s oil and natural gas potential.
  • For the first time in nearly 70 years, the United States has become a net energy exporter.
  • The United States is now the number one producer of oil and natural gas in the world.
  • Natural gas production reached a record-high of 34.9 quads in 2019, following record-high production in 2018 and in 2017.
  • The United States has been a net natural gas exporter for three consecutive years and has an export capacity of nearly 10 billion cubic feet per day.
  • Withdrew from the unfair, one-sided Paris Climate Agreement.
  • Canceled the previous administration’s Clean Power Plan, and replaced it with the new Affordable Clean Energy rule.
  • Approved the Keystone XL and Dakota Access pipelines.
  • Opened up the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in Alaska to oil and gas leasing.
  • Repealed the last administration’s Federal Coal Leasing Moratorium, which prohibited coal leasing on Federal lands.
  • Reformed permitting rules to eliminate unnecessary bureaucracy and speed approval for mines.
  • Fixed the New Source Review permitting program, which punished companies for upgrading or repairing coal power plants.
  • Fixed the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) steam electric and coal ash rules.
  • The average American family saved $2,500 a year in lower electric bills and lower prices at the gas pump.
  • Signed legislation repealing the harmful Stream Protection Rule.
  • Reduced the time to approve drilling permits on public lands by half, increasing permit applications to drill on public lands by 300 percent.
  • Expedited approval of the NuStar’s New Burgos pipeline to export American gasoline to Mexico.
  • Streamlined Liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal permitting and allowed long-term LNG export authorizations to be extended through 2050.
  • The United States is now among the top three LNG exporters in the world.
  • Increased LNG exports five-fold since January 2017, reaching an all-time high in January 2020.
  • LNG exports are expected to reduce the American trade deficit by over $10 billion.
  • Granted more than 20 new long-term approvals for LNG exports to non-free trade agreement countries.
  • The development of natural gas and LNG infrastructure in the United States is providing tens of thousands of jobs, and has led to the investment of tens of billions of dollars in infrastructure.
  • There are now 6 LNG export facilities operating in the United States, with 2 additional export projects under construction.
  • The amount of nuclear energy production in 2019 was the highest on record, through a combination of increased capacity from power plant upgrades and shorter refueling and maintenance cycles.
  • Prevented Russian energy coercion across Europe through various lines of effort, including the Partnership for Transatlantic Energy Cooperation, civil nuclear deals with Romania and Poland, and opposition to Nord Stream 2 pipeline.
  • Issued the Presidential Permit for the A2A railroad between Canada and Alaska, providing energy resources to emerging markets.
Increased access to our country’s abundant natural resources in order to achieve energy independence.
  • Renewable energy production and consumption both reached record highs in 2019.
  • Enacted policies that helped double the amount of electricity generated by solar and helped increase the amount of wind generation by 32 percent from 2016 through 2019.
  • Accelerated construction of energy infrastructure to ensure American energy producers can deliver their products to the market.
  • Cut red tape holding back the construction of new energy infrastructure.
  • Authorized ethanol producers to sell E15 year-round and allowed higher-ethanol gasoline to be distributed from existing pumps at filling stations.
  • Ensured greater transparency and certainty in the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program.
  • Negotiated leasing capacity in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to Australia, providing American taxpayers a return on this infrastructure investment.
  • Signed an executive order directing Federal agencies to work together to diminish the capability of foreign adversaries to target our critical electric infrastructure.
  • Reformed Section 401 of the Clean Water Act regulation to allow for the curation of interstate infrastructure.
  • Resolved the OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) oil crisis during COVID-19 by getting OPEC, Russia, and others to cut nearly 10 million barrels of production a day, stabilizing world oil prices.
  • Directed the Department of Energy to use the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to mitigate market volatility caused by COVID-19.
Investing in America’s Workers and Families

Affordable and high-quality Child Care for American workers and their families.

  • Doubled the Child Tax Credit from $1,000 to $2,000 per child and expanded the eligibility for receiving the credit.
  • Nearly 40 million families benefitted from the child tax credit (CTC), receiving an average benefit of $2,200 – totaling credits of approximately $88 billion.
  • Signed the largest-ever increase in Child Care and Development Block Grants – expanding access to quality, affordable child care for more than 800,000 low-income families.
  • Secured an additional $3.5 billion in the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act to help families and first responders with child care needs.
  • Created the first-ever paid family leave tax credit for employees earning $72,000 or less.
  • Signed into law 12-weeks of paid parental leave for Federal workers.
  • Signed into law a provision that enables new parents to withdraw up to $5,000 from their retirement accounts without penalty when they give birth to or adopt a child.
Advanced apprenticeship career pathways to good-paying jobs.
  • Expanded apprenticeships to more than 850,000 and established the new Industry-Recognized Apprenticeship programs in new and emerging fields.
  • Established the National Council for the American Worker and the American Workforce Policy Advisory Board.
  • Over 460 companies have signed the Pledge to America’s Workers, committing to provide more than 16 million job and training opportunities.
  • Signed an executive order that directs the Federal government to replace outdated degree-based hiring with skills-based hiring.
Advanced women’s economic empowerment.
  • Included women’s empowerment for the first time in the President’s 2017 National Security Strategy.
  • Signed into law key pieces of legislation, including the Women, Peace, and Security Act and the Women Entrepreneurship and Economic Empowerment Act.
  • Launched the Women’s Global Development and Prosperity (W-GDP) Initiative – the first-ever whole-of-government approach to women’s economic empowerment that has reached 24 million women worldwide.
  • Established an innovative new W-GDP Fund at USAID.
  • Launched the Women Entrepreneurs Finance Initiative (We-Fi) with 13 other nations.
  • Announced a $50 million donation on behalf of the United States to We-Fi, providing more capital to women-owned businesses around the world.
  • Released the first-ever Strategy on Women, Peace, and Security, which focused on increasing women’s participation to prevent and resolve conflicts.
  • Launched the W-GDP 2x Global Women’s Initiative with the Development Finance Corporation, which has mobilized more than $3 billion in private sector investments over three years.
Ensured American leadership in technology and innovation.
  • First administration to name artificial intelligence, quantum information science, and 5G communications as national research and development priorities.
  • Launched the American Broadband Initiative to promote the rapid deployment of broadband internet across rural America.
  • Made 100 megahertz of crucial mid-band spectrum available for commercial operations, a key factor to driving widespread 5G access across rural America.
  • Launched the American AI Initiative to ensure American leadership in artificial intelligence (AI), and established the National AI Initiative Office at the White House.
  • Established the first-ever principles for Federal agency adoption of AI to improve services for the American people.
  • Signed the National Quantum Initiative Act establishing the National Quantum Coordination Office at the White House to drive breakthroughs in quantum information science.
  • Signed the Secure 5G and Beyond Act to ensure America leads the world in 5G.
  • Launched a groundbreaking program to test safe and innovative commercial drone operations nationwide.
  • Issued new rulemaking to accelerate the return of American civil supersonic aviation.
  • Committed to doubling investments in AI and quantum information science (QIS) research and development.
  • Announced the establishment of $1 billion AI and quantum research institutes across America.
  • Established the largest dual-use 5G test sites in the world to advance 5G commercial and military innovation.
  • Signed landmark Prague Principles with America’s allies to advance the deployment of secure 5G telecommunications networks.
  • Signed first-ever bilateral AI cooperation agreement with the United Kingdom.
  • Built collation among allies to ban Chinese Telecom Company Huawei from their 5G infrastructure.
Preserved American jobs for American workers and rejected the importation of cheap foreign labor.
  • Pressured the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to reverse their decision to lay off over 200 American workers and replace them with cheaper foreign workers.
  • Removed the TVA Chairman of the Board and a TVA Board Member.
Life-Saving Response to the China Virus

Restricted travel to the United States from infected regions of the world.

  • Suspended all travel from China, saving thousands of lives.
  • Required all American citizens returning home from designated outbreak countries to return through designated airports with enhanced screening measures, and to undergo a self-quarantine.
  • Announced further travel restrictions on Iran, the Schengen Area of Europe, the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Brazil.
  • Issued travel advisory warnings recommending that American citizens avoid all international travel.
  • Reached bilateral agreements with Mexico and Canada to suspend non-essential travel and expeditiously return illegal aliens.
  • Repatriated over 100,000 American citizens stranded abroad on more than 1,140 flights from 136 countries and territories.
  • Safely transported, evacuated, treated, and returned home trapped passengers on cruise ships.
  • Took action to authorize visa sanctions on foreign governments who impede our efforts to protect American citizens by refusing or unreasonably delaying the return of their own citizens, subjects, or residents from the United States.
Acted early to combat the China Virus in the United States.
  • Established the White House Coronavirus Task Force, with leading experts on infectious diseases, to manage the Administration’s efforts to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 and to keep workplaces safe.
  • Pledged in the State of the Union address to “take all necessary steps to safeguard our citizens from the Virus,” while the Democrats’ response made not a single mention of COVID-19 or even the threat of China.
  • Declared COVID-19 a National Emergency under the Stafford Act.
  • Established the 24/7 FEMA National Response Coordination Center.
  • Released guidance recommending containment measures critical to slowing the spread of the Virus, decompressing peak burden on hospitals and infrastructure, and diminishing health impacts.
  • Implemented strong community mitigation strategies to sharply reduce the number of lives lost in the United States down from experts’ projection of up to 2.2 million deaths in the United States without mitigation.
  • Halted American funding to the World Health Organization to counter its egregious bias towards China that jeopardized the safety of Americans.
  • Announced plans for withdrawal from the World Health Organization and redirected contribution funds to help meet global public health needs.
  • Called on the United Nations to hold China accountable for their handling of the virus, including refusing to be transparent and failing to contain the virus before it spread.
Re-purposed domestic manufacturing facilities to ensure frontline workers had critical supplies.
  • Distributed billions of pieces of Personal Protective Equipment, including gloves, masks, gowns, and face shields.
  • Invoked the Defense Production Act over 100 times to accelerate the development and manufacturing of essential material in the USA.
  • Made historic investments of more than $3 billion into the industrial base.
  • Contracted with companies such as Ford, General Motors, Philips, and General Electric to produce ventilators.
  • Contracted with Honeywell, 3M, O&M Halyard, Moldex, and Lydall to increase our Nation’s production of N-95 masks.
  • The Army Corps of Engineers built 11,000 beds, distributed 10,000 ventilators, and surged personnel to hospitals.
  • Converted the Javits Center in New York into a 3,000-bed hospital, and opened medical facilities in Seattle and New Orleans.
  • Dispatched the USNS Comfort to New York City, and the USNS Mercy to Los Angeles.
  • Deployed thousands of FEMA employees, National Guard members, and military forces to help in the response.
  • Provided support to states facing new emergences of the virus, including surging testing sites, deploying medical personnel, and advising on mitigation strategies.
  • Announced Federal support to governors for use of the National Guard with 100 percent cost-share.
  • Established the Supply Chain Task Force as a “control tower” to strategically allocate high-demand medical supplies and PPE to areas of greatest need.
  • Requested critical data elements from states about the status of hospital capacity, ventilators, and PPE.
  • Executed nearly 250 flights through Project Air Bridge to transport hundreds of millions of surgical masks, N95 respirators, gloves, and gowns from around the world to hospitals and facilities throughout the United States.
  • Signed an executive order invoking the Defense Production Act to ensure that Americans have a reliable supply of products like beef, pork, and poultry.
  • Stabilized the food supply chain restoring the Nation’s protein processing capacity through a collaborative approach with Federal, state, and local officials and industry partners.
  • The continued movement of food and other critical items of daily life distributed to stores and to American homes went unaffected.
Replenished the depleted Strategic National Stockpile.
  • Increased the number of ventilators nearly ten-fold to more than 153,000.
  • Despite the grim projections from the media and governors, no American who has needed a ventilator has been denied a ventilator.
  • Increased the number of N95 masks fourteen-fold to more than 176 million.
  • Issued an executive order ensuring critical medical supplies are produced in the United States.
Created the largest, most advanced, and most innovative testing system in the world.
  • Built the world’s leading testing system from scratch, conducting over 200 million tests – more than all of the European Union combined.
  • Engaged more than 400 test developers to increase testing capacity from less than 100 tests per day to more than 2 million tests per day.
  • Slashed red tape and approved Emergency Use Authorizations for more than 300 different tests, including 235 molecular tests, 63 antibody tests, and 11 antigen tests.
  • Delivered state-of-the-art testing devices and millions of tests to every certified nursing home in the country.
  • Announced more flexibility to Medicare Advantage and Part D plans to waive cost-sharing for tests.
  • Over 2,000 retail pharmacy stores, including CVS, Walmart, and Walgreens, are providing testing using new regulatory and reimbursement options.
  • Deployed tens of millions of tests to nursing homes, assisted living facilities, historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), tribes, disaster relief operations, Home Health/Hospice organizations, and the Veterans Health Administration.
  • Began shipping 150 million BinaxNOW rapid tests to states, long-term care facilities, the IHS, HBCUs, and other key partners.
Pioneered groundbreaking treatments and therapies that reduced the mortality rate by 85 percent, saving over 2 million lives.
  • The United States has among the lowest case fatality rates in the entire world.
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) launched the Coronavirus Treatment Acceleration Program to expedite the regulatory review process for therapeutics in clinical trials, accelerate the development and publication of industry guidance on developing treatments, and utilize regulatory flexibility to help facilitate the scaling-up of manufacturing capacity.
  • More than 370 therapies are in clinical trials and another 560 are in the planning stages.
  • Announced $450 million in available funds to support the manufacturing of Regeneron’s antibody cocktail.
  • Shipped tens of thousands of doses of the Regeneron drug.
  • Authorized an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for convalescent plasma.
  • Treated around 100,000 patients with convalescent plasma, which may reduce mortality by 50 percent.
  • Provided $48 million to fund the Mayo Clinic study that tested the efficacy of convalescent plasma for patients with COVID-19.
  • Made an agreement to support the large-scale manufacturing of AstraZeneca’s cocktail of two monoclonal antibodies.
  • Approved Remdesivir as the first COVID-19 treatment, which could reduce hospitalization time by nearly a third.
  • Secured more than 90 percent of the world’s supply of Remdesivir, enough to treat over 850,000 high-risk patients.
  • Granted an EUA to Eli Lilly for its anti-body treatments.
  • Finalized an agreement with Eli Lilly to purchase the first doses of the company’s investigational antibody therapeutic.
  • Provided up to $270 million to the American Red Cross and America’s Blood Centers to support the collection of up to 360,000 units of plasma.
  • Launched a nationwide campaign to ask patients who have recovered from COVID-19 to donate plasma.
  • Announced Phase 3 clinical trials for varying types of blood thinners to treat adults diagnosed with COVID-19.
  • Issued an EUA for the monoclonal antibody therapy bamlanivimab.
  • FDA issued an EUA for casirivimab and imdevimab to be administered together.
  • Launched the COVID-19 High-Performance Computing Consortium with private sector and academic leaders, unleashing America’s supercomputers to accelerate coronavirus research.
Brought the full power of American medicine and government to produce a safe and effective vaccine in record time.
  • Launched Operation Warp Speed to initiate an unprecedented drive to develop and make available an effective vaccine by January 2021.
  • Pfizer and Moderna developed two vaccines in just nine months, five times faster than the fastest prior vaccine development in American history.
  • Pfizer and Moderna’s vaccines are approximately 95 effective – far exceeding all expectations.
  • AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson also both have promising candidates in the final stage of clinical trials.
  • The vaccines will be administered within 24 hours of FDA-approval.
  • Made millions of vaccine doses available before the end of 2020, with hundreds of millions more to quickly follow.
  • FedEx and UPS will ship doses from warehouses directly to local pharmacies, hospitals, and healthcare providers.
  • Finalized a partnership with CVS and Walgreens to deliver vaccines directly to residents of nursing homes and long-term care facilities as soon as a state requests it, at no cost to America’s seniors.
  • Signed an executive order to ensure that the United States government prioritizes getting the vaccine to American citizens before sending it to other nations.
  • Provided approximately $13 billion to accelerate vaccine development and to manufacture all of the top candidates in advance.
  • Provided critical investments of $4.1 billion to Moderna to support the development, manufacturing, and distribution of their vaccines.
  • Moderna announced its vaccine is 95 percent effective and is pending FDA approval.
  • Provided Pfizer up to $1.95 billion to support the mass-manufacturing and nationwide distribution of their vaccine candidate.
  • Pfizer announced its vaccine is 95 percent effective and is pending FDA approval.
  • Provided approximately $1 billion to support the manufacturing and distribution of Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine candidate.
  • Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine candidate reached the final stage of clinical trials.
  • Made up to $1.2 billion available to support AstraZeneca’s vaccine candidate.
  • AstraZeneca’s vaccine candidate reached the final stage of clinical trials.
  • Made an agreement to support the large-scale manufacturing of Novavax’s vaccine candidate with 100 million doses expected.
  • Partnered with Sanofi and GSK to support large-scale manufacturing of a COVID-19 investigational vaccine.
  • Awarded $200 million in funding to support vaccine preparedness and plans for the immediate distribution and administration of vaccines.
  • Provided $31 million to Cytvia for vaccine-related consumable products.
  • Under the PREP Act, issued guidance authorizing qualified pharmacy technicians to administer vaccines.
  • Announced that McKesson Corporation will produce, store, and distribute vaccine ancillary supply kits on behalf of the Strategic National Stockpile to help healthcare workers who will administer vaccines.
  • Announced partnership with large-chain, independent, and regional pharmacies to deliver vaccines.
Prioritized resources for the most vulnerable Americans, including nursing home residents.
  • Quickly established guidelines for nursing homes and expanded telehealth opportunities to protect vulnerable seniors.
  • Increased surveillance, oversight, and transparency of all 15,417 Medicare and Medicaid nursing homes by requiring them to report cases of COVID-19 to all residents, their families, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
  • Required that all nursing homes test staff regularly.
  • Launched an unprecedented national nursing home training curriculum to equip nursing home staff with the knowledge they need to stop the spread of COVID-19.
  • Delivered $81 million for increased inspections and funded 35,000 members of the Nation Guard to deliver critical supplies to every Medicare-certified nursing homes.
  • Deployed Federal Task Force Strike Teams to provide onsite technical assistance and education to nursing homes experiencing outbreaks.
  • Distributed tens of billions of dollars in Provider Relief Funds to protect nursing homes, long-term care facilities, safety-net hospitals, rural hospitals, and communities hardest hit by the virus.
  • Released 1.5 million N95 respirators from the Strategic National Stockpile for distribution to over 3,000 nursing home facilities.
  • Directed the White House Opportunity and Revitalization Council to refocus on underserved communities impacted by the coronavirus.
  • Required that testing results reported include data on race, gender, ethnicity, and ZIP code, to ensure that resources were directed to communities disproportionately harmed by the virus.
  • Ensured testing was offered at 95 percent of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHC), which serve over 29 million patients in 12,000 communities across the Nation.
  • Invested an unprecedented $8 billion in tribal communities.
  • Maintained safe access for Veterans to VA healthcare throughout the COVID-19 Pandemic and supported non-VA hospital systems and private and state-run nursing homes with VA clinical teams.
  • Signed legislation ensuring no reduction of VA education benefits under the GI Bill for online distance learning.
Supported Americans as they safely return to school and work.
  • Issued the Guidelines for Opening Up America Again, a detailed blueprint to help governors as they began reopening the country. Focused on protecting the most vulnerable and mitigating the risk of any resurgence while restarting the economy and allowing Americans to safely return to their jobs.
  • Helped Americans return to work by providing extensive guidance on workplace-safety measures to protect against COVID-19, and investigating over 10,000 coronavirus-related complaints and referrals.
  • Provided over $31 billion to support elementary and secondary schools.
  • Distributed 125 million face masks to school districts.
  • Provided comprehensive guidelines to schools on how to protect and identify high-risk individuals, prevent the spread of COVID-19, and conduct safe in-person teaching.
  • Brought back the safe return of college athletics, including Big Ten and Pac-12 football.
Rescued the American economy with nearly $3.4 trillion in relief, the largest financial aid package in history.
  • Secured an initial $8.3 billion Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Act, supporting the development of treatments and vaccines, and to procure critical medical supplies and equipment.
  • Signed the $100 billion Families First Coronavirus Relief Act, guaranteeing free coronavirus testing, emergency paid sick leave and family leave, Medicaid funding, and food assistance.
  • Signed the $2.3 trillion Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act, providing unprecedented and immediate relief to American families, workers, and businesses.
  • Signed additional legislation providing nearly $900 billion in support for coronavirus emergency response and relief, including critically needed funds to continue the Paycheck Protection Program.
  • Signed the Paycheck Protection Program and Healthcare Enhancement Act, adding an additional $310 billion to replenish the program.
  • Delivered approximately 160 million relief payments to hardworking Americans.
  • Through the Paycheck Protection Program, approved over $525 billion in forgivable loans to more than 5.2 million small businesses, supporting more than 51 million American jobs.
  • The Treasury Department approved the establishment of the Money Market Mutual Fund Liquidity Facility to provide liquidity to the financial system.
  • The Treasury Department, working with the Federal Reserve, was able to leverage approximately $4 trillion in emergency lending facilities.
  • Signed an executive order extending expanded unemployment benefits.
  • Signed an executive order to temporarily suspend student loan payments, evictions, and collection of payroll taxes.
  • Small Business Administration expanded access to emergency economic assistance for small businesses, faith-based, and religious entities.
  • Protected jobs for American workers impacted by COVID-19 by temporarily suspending several job-related nonimmigrant visas, including H-1B’s, H-2B’s without a nexus to the food-supply chain, certain H-4’s, as well as L’s and certain J’s.
Great Healthcare for Americans

Empowered American patients by greatly expanding healthcare choice, transparency, and affordability.

  • Eliminated the Obamacare individual mandate – a financial relief to low and middle-income households that made up nearly 80 percent of the families who paid the penalty for not wanting to purchase health insurance.
  • Increased choice for consumers by promoting competition in the individual health insurance market leading to lower premiums for three years in a row.
  • Under the Trump Administration, more than 90 percent of the counties have multiple options on the individual insurance market to choose from.
  • Offered Association Health Plans, which allow employers to pool together and offer more affordable, quality health coverage to their employees at up to 30 percent lower cost.
  • Increased availability of short-term, limited-duration health plans, which can cost up to 60 percent less than traditional plans, giving Americans more flexibility to choose plans that suit their needs.
  • Expanded Health Reimbursement Arrangements, allowing millions of Americans to be able to shop for a plan of their choice on the individual market, and then have their employer cover the cost.
  • Added 2,100 new Medicare Advantage plan options since 2017, a 76 percent increase.
  • Lowered Medicare Advantage premiums by 34 percent nationwide to the lowest level in 14 years. Medicare health plan premium savings for beneficiaries have totaled $nearly 1.5 billion since 2017.
  • Improved access to tax-free health savings accounts for individuals with chronic conditions.
  • Eliminated costly Obamacare taxes, including the health insurance tax, the medical device tax, and the “Cadillac tax.”
  • Worked with states to create more flexibility and relief from oppressive Obamacare regulations, including reinsurance waivers to help lower premiums.
  • Released legislative principles to end surprise medical billing.
  • Finalized requirements for unprecedented price transparency from hospitals and insurance companies so patients know what the cost is before they receive care.
  • Took action to require that hospitals make the prices they negotiate with insurers publicly available and easily accessible online.
  • Improved patients' access to their health data by penalizing hospitals and causing clinicians to lose their incentive payments if they do not comply.
  • Expanded access to telehealth, especially in rural and underserved communities.
  • Increased Medicare payments to rural hospitals to stem a decade of rising closures and deliver enhanced access to care in rural areas.
Issued unprecedented reforms that dramatically lowered the price of prescription drugs.
  • Lowered drug prices for the first time in 51 years.
  • Launched an initiative to stop global freeloading in the drug market.
  • Finalized a rule to allow the importation of prescription drugs from Canada.
  • Finalized the Most Favored Nation Rule to ensure that pharmaceutical companies offer the same discounts to the United States as they do to other nations, resulting in an estimated $85 billion in savings over seven years and $30 billion in out-of-pocket costs alone.
  • Proposed a rule requiring federally funded health centers to pass drug company discounts on insulin and Epi-Pens directly to patients.
  • Ended the gag clauses that prevented pharmacists from informing patients about the best prices for the medications they need.
  • Ended the costly kickbacks to middlemen and ensured that patients directly benefit from available discounts at the pharmacy counter, saving Americans up to 30 percent on brand name pharmaceuticals.
  • Enhanced Part D plans to provide many seniors with Medicare access to a broad set of insulins at a maximum $35 copay for a month’s supply of each type of insulin.
  • Reduced Medicare Part D prescription drug premiums, saving beneficiaries nearly $2 billion in premium costs since 2017.
  • Ended the Unapproved Drugs Initiative, which provided market exclusivity to generic drugs.
Promoted research and innovation in healthcare to ensure that American patients have access to the best treatment in the world.
  • Signed first-ever executive order to affirm that it is the official policy of the United States Government to protect patients with pre-existing conditions.
  • Passed Right To Try to give terminally ill patients access to lifesaving cures.
  • Signed an executive order to fight kidney disease with more transplants and better treatment.
  • Signed into law a $1 billion increase in funding for critical Alzheimer’s research.
  • Accelerated medical breakthroughs in genetic treatments for Sickle Cell disease.
  • Finalized the interoperability rules that will give American patients access to their electronic health records on their phones.
  • Initiated an effort to provide $500 million over the next decade to improve pediatric cancer research.
  • Launched a campaign to end the HIV/AIDS epidemic in America in the next decade.
  • Started a program to provide the HIV prevention drug PrEP to uninsured patients for free.
  • Signed an executive order and awarded new development contracts to modernize the influenza vaccine.
Protected our Nation’s seniors by safeguarding and strengthening Medicare.
  • Updated the way Medicare pays for innovative medical products to ensure beneficiaries have access to the latest innovation and treatment.
  • Reduced improper payments for Medicare an estimated $15 billion since 2016 protecting taxpayer dollars and leading to less fraud, waste, and abuse.
  • Took rapid action to combat antimicrobial resistance and secure access to life-saving new antibiotic drugs for American seniors, by removing several financial disincentives and setting policies to reduce inappropriate use.
  • Launched new online tools, including eMedicare, Blue Button 2.0, and Care Compare, to help seniors see what is covered, compare costs, streamline data, and compare tools available on Medicare.gov.
  • Provided new Medicare Advantage supplemental benefits, including modifications to help keep seniors safe in their homes, respite care for caregivers, non-opioid pain management alternatives like therapeutic massages, transportation, and more in-home support services and assistance.
  • Protected Medicare beneficiaries by removing Social Security numbers from all Medicare cards, a project completed ahead of schedule.
  • Unleashed unprecedented transparency in Medicare and Medicaid data to spur research and innovation.
Remaking the Federal Judiciary

Appointed a historic number of Federal judges who will interpret the Constitution as written.

  • Nominated and confirmed over 230 Federal judges.
  • Confirmed 54 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals, making up nearly a third of the entire appellate bench.
  • Filled all Court of Appeals vacancies for the first time in four decades.
  • Flipped the Second, Third, and Eleventh Circuits from Democrat-appointed majorities to Republican-appointed majorities. And dramatically reshaped the long-liberal Ninth Circuit.
Appointed three Supreme Court justices, expanding its conservative-appointed majority to 6-3.
  • Appointed Justice Neil Gorsuch to replace Justice Antonin Scalia.
  • Appointed Justice Brett Kavanaugh to replace Justice Anthony Kennedy.
  • Appointed Justice Amy Coney Barrett to replace Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg.
Achieving a Secure Border

Secured the Southern Border of the United States.

  • Built over 400 miles of the world’s most robust and advanced border wall.
  • Illegal crossings have plummeted over 87 percent where the wall has been constructed.
  • Deployed nearly 5,000 troops to the Southern border. In addition, Mexico deployed tens of thousands of their own soldiers and national guardsmen to secure their side of the US-Mexico border.
  • Ended the dangerous practice of Catch-and-Release, which means that instead of aliens getting released into the United States pending future hearings never to be seen again, they are detained pending removal, and then ultimately returned to their home countries.
  • Entered into three historic asylum cooperation agreements with Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala to stop asylum fraud and resettle illegal migrants in third-party nations pending their asylum applications.
  • Entered into a historic partnership with Mexico, referred to as the “Migrant Protection Protocols,” to safely return asylum-seekers to Mexico while awaiting hearings in the United States.
Fully enforced the immigration laws of the United States.
  • Signed an executive order to strip discretionary Federal grant funding from deadly sanctuary cities.
  • Fully enforced and implemented statutorily authorized “expedited removal” of illegal aliens.
  • The Department of Justice prosecuted a record-breaking number of immigration-related crimes.
  • Used Section 243(d) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) to reduce the number of aliens coming from countries whose governments refuse to accept their nationals who were ordered removed from the United States.
Ended asylum fraud, shut down human smuggling traffickers, and solved the humanitarian crisis across the Western Hemisphere.
  • Suspended, via regulation, asylum for aliens who had skipped previous countries where they were eligible for asylum but opted to “forum shop” and continue to the United States.
  • Safeguarded migrant families, and protected migrant safety, by promulgating new regulations under the Flores Settlement Agreement.
  • Proposed regulations to end the practice of giving free work permits to illegal aliens lodging meritless asylum claims.
  • Issued “internal relocation” guidance.
  • Cross-trained United States Border Patrol agents to conduct credible fear screenings alongside USCIS (United States Citizenship and Immigration Services) adjudication personnel to reduce massive backlogs.
  • Streamlined and expedited the asylum hearing process through both the Prompt Asylum Claim Review (PACR) and the Humanitarian Asylum Review Process (HARP).
  • Launched the Family Fraud Initiative to identify hundreds of individuals who were fraudulently presenting themselves as family units at the border, oftentimes with trafficking children, in order to ensure child welfare.
  • Improved screening in countries with high overstay rates and reduced visa overstay rates in many of these countries.
  • Removed bureaucratic constraints on United States consular officers that reduced their ability to appropriately vet visa applicants.
  • Worked with Mexico and other regional partners to dismantle the human smuggling networks in our hemisphere that profit from human misery and fuel the border crisis by exploiting vulnerable populations.
Secured our Nation’s immigration system against criminals and terrorists.
  • Instituted national security travel bans to keep out terrorists, jihadists, and violent extremists, and implemented a uniform security and information-sharing baseline all nations must meet in order for their nationals to be able to travel to, and emigrate to, the United States.
  • Suspended refugee resettlement from the world’s most dangerous and terror-afflicted regions.
  • Rebalanced refugee assistance to focus on overseas resettlement and burden-sharing.
  • 85 percent reduction in refugee resettlement.
  • Overhauled a badly-broken refugee security screening process.
  • Required the Department of State to consult with states and localities as part of the Federal government’s refugee resettlement process.
  • Issued strict sanctions on countries that have failed to take back their own nationals.
  • Established the National Vetting Center, which is the most advanced and comprehensive visa screening system anywhere in the world.
Protected American Workers and Taxpayers
  • Issued a comprehensive “public charge” regulation to ensure newcomers to the United States are financially self-sufficient and not reliant on welfare.
  • Created an enforcement mechanism for sponsor repayment and deeming, to ensure that people who are presenting themselves as sponsors are actually responsible for sponsor obligations.
  • Issued regulations to combat the horrendous practice of “birth tourism.”
  • Issued a rule with the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to make illegal aliens ineligible for public housing.
  • Issued directives requiring Federal agencies to hire United States workers first and prioritizing the hiring of United States workers wherever possible.
  • Suspended the entry of low-wage workers that threaten American jobs.
  • Finalized new H-1B regulations to permanently end the displacement of United States workers and modify the administrative tools that are required for H-1B visa issuance.
  • Defended United States sovereignty by withdrawing from the United Nations’ Global Compact on Migration.
  • Suspended Employment Authorization Documents for aliens who arrive illegally between ports of entry and are ordered removed from the United States.
  • Restored integrity to the use of Temporary Protected Status (TPS) by strictly adhering to the statutory conditions required for TPS.
Restoring American Leadership Abroad

Restored America’s leadership in the world and successfully negotiated to ensure our allies pay their fair share for our military protection.

  • Secured a $400 billion increase in defense spending from NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) allies by 2024, and the number of members meeting their minimum obligations more than doubled.
  • Credited by Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg for strengthening NATO.
  • Worked to reform and streamline the United Nations (UN) and reduced spending by $1.3 billion.
  • Allies, including Japan and the Republic of Korea, committed to increase burden-sharing.
  • Protected our Second Amendment rights by announcing the United States will never ratify the UN Arms Trade Treaty.
  • Returned 56 hostages and detainees from more than 24 countries.
  • Worked to advance a free and open Indo-Pacific region, promoting new investments and expanding American partnerships.
Advanced peace through strength
  • Withdrew from the horrible, one-sided Iran Nuclear Deal and imposed crippling sanctions on the Iranian Regime.
  • Conducted vigorous enforcement on all sanctions to bring Iran’s oil exports to zero and deny the regime its principal source of revenue.
  • The first president to meet with a leader of North Korea and the first sitting president to cross the demilitarized zone into North Korea.
  • Maintained a maximum pressure campaign and enforced tough sanctions on North Korea while negotiating de-nuclearization, the release of American hostages, and the return of the remains of American heroes.
  • Brokered economic normalization between Serbia and Kosovo, bolstering peace in the Balkans.
  • Signed the Honk Kong Autonomy Act and ended the United States’ preferential treatment with Hong Kong to hold China accountable for its infringement on the autonomy of Hong Kong.
  • Led allied efforts to defeat the Chinese Communist Party’s efforts to control the international telecommunications system.
Renewed our cherished friendship and alliance with Israel and took historic action to promote peace in the Middle East.
  • Recognized Jerusalem as the true capital of Israel and quickly moved the American Embassy in Israel to Jerusalem.
  • Acknowledged Israel’s sovereignty over the Golan Heights and declared that Israeli settlements in the West Bank are not inconsistent with international law.
  • Removed the United States from the United Nations Human Rights Council due to the group’s blatant anti-Israel bias.
  • Brokered historic peace agreements between Israel and Arab-Muslim countries, including the United Arab Emirates, the Kingdom of Bahrain, and Sudan.
  • Brokered a deal for Kosovo to normalize ties and establish diplomatic relations with Israel.
  • Announced that Serbia would move its embassy in Israel to Jerusalem.
  • First American president to address an assembly of leaders from more than 50 Muslim nations, and reach an agreement to fight terrorism in all its forms.
  • Established the Etidal Center to combat terrorism in the Middle East in conjunction with the Saudi Arabian Government.
  • Announced the Vision for Peace Political Plan – a two-state solution that resolves the risks of Palestinian statehood to Israel’s security, and the first time Israel has agreed to a map and a Palestinian state.
  • Released an economic plan to empower the Palestinian people and enhance Palestinian governance through historic private investment.
Stood up against Communism and Socialism in the Western Hemisphere.
  • Reversed the previous Administration’s disastrous Cuba policy, canceling the sellout deal with the Communist Castro dictatorship.
  • Pledged not to lift sanctions until all political prisoners are freed; freedoms of assembly and expression are respected; all political parties are legalized; and free elections are scheduled.
  • Enacted a new policy aimed at preventing American dollars from funding the Cuban regime, including stricter travel restrictions and restrictions on the importation of Cuban alcohol and tobacco.
  • Implemented a cap on remittances to Cuba.
  • Enabled Americans to file lawsuits against persons and entities that traffic in property confiscated by the Cuban regime.
  • First world leader to recognize Juan Guaido as the Interim President of Venezuela and led a diplomatic coalition against the Socialist Dictator of Venezuela, Nicolas Maduro.
  • Blocked all property of the Venezuelan Government in the jurisdiction of the United States.
  • Cut off the financial resources of the Maduro regime and sanctioned key sectors of the Venezuelan economy exploited by the regime.
  • Brought criminal charges against Nicolas Maduro for his narco-terrorism.
  • Imposed stiff sanctions on the Ortega regime in Nicaragua.
  • Joined together with Mexico and Canada in a successful bid to host the 2026 FIFA World Cup, with 60 matches to be held in the United States.
  • Won bid to host the 2028 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, California.
Colossal Rebuilding of the Military

Rebuilt the military and created the Sixth Branch, the United States Space Force.

  • Completely rebuilt the United States military with over $2.2 trillion in defense spending, including $738 billion for 2020.
  • Secured three pay raises for our service members and their families, including the largest raise in a decade.
  • Established the Space Force, the first new branch of the United States Armed Forces since 1947.
  • Modernized and recapitalized our nuclear forces and missile defenses to ensure they continue to serve as a strong deterrent.
  • Upgraded our cyber defenses by elevating the Cyber Command into a major warfighting command and by reducing burdensome procedural restrictions on cyber operations.
  • Vetoed the FY21 National Defense Authorization Act, which failed to protect our national security, disrespected the history of our veterans and military, and contradicted our efforts to put America first.
Defeated terrorists, held leaders accountable for malign actions, and bolstered peace around the world.
  • Defeated 100 percent of ISIS’ territorial caliphate in Iraq and Syria.
  • Freed nearly 8 million civilians from ISIS’ bloodthirsty control, and liberated Mosul, Raqqa, and the final ISIS foothold of Baghuz.
  • Killed the leader of ISIS, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, and eliminated the world’s top terrorist, Qasem Soleimani.
  • Created the Terrorist Financing Targeting Center (TFTC) in partnership between the United States and its Gulf partners to combat extremist ideology and threats, and target terrorist financial networks, including over 60 terrorist individuals and entities spanning the globe.
  • Twice took decisive military action against the Assad regime in Syria for the barbaric use of chemical weapons against innocent civilians, including a successful 59 Tomahawk cruise missiles strike.
  • Authorized sanctions against bad actors tied to Syria’s chemical weapons program.
  • Negotiated an extended ceasefire with Turkey in northeast Syria.
Addressed gaps in American’s defense-industrial base, providing much-needed updates to improve the safety of our country.
  • Protected America’s defense-industrial base, directing the first whole-of-government assessment of our manufacturing and defense supply chains since the 1950s.
  • Took decisive steps to secure our information and communications technology and services supply chain, including unsafe mobile applications.
  • Completed several multi-year nuclear material removal campaigns, securing over 1,000 kilograms of highly enriched uranium and significantly reducing global nuclear threats.
  • Signed an executive order directing Federal agencies to work together to diminish the capability of foreign adversaries to target our critical electric infrastructure.
  • Established a whole-of-government strategy addressing the threat posed by China’s malign efforts targeting the United States taxpayer-funded research and development ecosystem.
  • Advanced missile defense capabilities and regional alliances.
  • Bolstered the ability of our allies and partners to defend themselves through the sale of aid and military equipment.
  • Signed the largest arms deal ever, worth nearly $110 billion, with Saudi Arabia.
Serving and Protecting Our Veterans

Reformed the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to improve care, choice, and employee accountability.

  • Signed and implemented the VA Mission Act, which made permanent Veterans CHOICE, revolutionized the VA community care system, and delivered quality care closer to home for Veterans.
  • The number of Veterans who say they trust VA services has increased 19 percent to a record 91 percent, an all-time high.
  • Offered same-day emergency mental health care at every VA medical facility, and secured $9.5 billion for mental health services in 2020.
  • Signed the VA Choice and Quality Employment Act of 2017, which ensured that veterans could continue to see the doctor of their choice and wouldn’t have to wait for care.
  • During the Trump Administration, millions of veterans have been able to choose a private doctor in their communities.
  • Expanded Veterans’ ability to access telehealth services, including through the “Anywhere to Anywhere” VA healthcare initiative leading to a 1000 percent increase in usage during COVID-19.
  • Signed the Veterans Affairs Accountability and Whistleblower Protection Act and removed thousands of VA workers who failed to give our Vets the care they have so richly deserve.
  • Signed the Veterans Appeals Improvement and Modernization Act of 2017 and improved the efficiency of the VA, setting record numbers of appeals decisions.
  • Modernized medical records to begin a seamless transition from the Department of Defense to the VA.
  • Launched a new tool that provides Veterans with online access to average wait times and quality-of-care data.
  • The promised White House VA Hotline has fielded hundreds of thousands of calls.
  • Formed the PREVENTS Task Force to fight the tragedy of Veteran suicide.
Decreased veteran homelessness, and education benefits, and achieved record-low veteran unemployment.
  • Signed and implemented the Forever GI Bill, allowing Veterans to use their benefits to get an education at any point in their lives.
  • Eliminated every penny of Federal student loan debt owed by American veterans who are completely and permanently disabled.
  • Compared to 2009, 49 percent fewer veterans experienced homelessness nationwide during 2019.
  • Signed and implemented the HAVEN Act to ensure that Veterans who’ve declared bankruptcy don’t lose their disability payments.
  • Helped hundreds of thousands of military service members make the transition from the military to the civilian workforce, and developed programs to support the employment of military spouses.
  • Placed nearly 40,000 homeless veterans into employment through the Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program.
  • Placed over 600,000 veterans into employment through American Job Center services.
  • Enrolled over 500,000 transitioning service members in over 20,000 Department of Labor employment workshops.
  • Signed an executive order to help Veterans transition seamlessly into the United States Merchant Marine.
Making Communities Safer

Signed into law landmark criminal justice reform.

  • Signed the bipartisan First Step Act into law, the first landmark criminal justice reform legislation ever passed to reduce recidivism and help former inmates successfully rejoin society.
  • Promoted second chance hiring to give former inmates the opportunity to live crime-free lives and find meaningful employment.
  • Launched a new “Ready to Work” initiative to help connect employers directly with former prisoners.
  • Awarded $2.2 million to states to expand the use of fidelity bonds, which underwrite companies that hire former prisoners.
  • Reversed decades-old ban on Second Chance Pell programs to provide postsecondary education to individuals who are incarcerated expand their skills and better succeed in the workforce upon re-entry.
  • Awarded over $333 million in Department of Labor grants to nonprofits and local and state governments for reentry projects focused on career development services for justice-involved youth and adults who were formerly incarcerated.
Unprecedented support for law-enforcement.
  • In 2019, violent crime fell for the third consecutive year.
  • Since 2016, the violent crime rate has declined over 5 percent and the murder rate has decreased by over 7 percent.
  • Launched Operation Legend to combat a surge of violent crime in cities, resulting in more than 5,500 arrests.
  • Deployed the National Guard and Federal law enforcement to Kenosha to stop violence and restore public safety.
  • Provided $1 million to Kenosha law enforcement, nearly $4 million to support small businesses in Kenosha, and provided over $41 million to support law enforcement to the state of Wisconsin.
  • Deployed Federal agents to save the courthouse in Portland from rioters.
  • Signed an executive order outlining ten-year prison sentences for destroying Federal property and monuments.
  • Directed the Department of Justice (DOJ) to investigate and prosecute Federal offenses related to ongoing violence.
  • DOJ provided nearly $400 million for new law enforcement hiring.
  • Endorsed by the 355,000 members of the Fraternal Order of Police.
  • Revitalized Project Safe Neighborhoods, which brings together Federal, state, local, and tribal law enforcement officials to develop solutions to violent crime.
  • Improved first-responder communications by deploying the FirstNet National Public Safety Broadband Network, which serves more than 12,000 public safety agencies across the Nation.
  • Established a new commission to evaluate best practices for recruiting, training, and supporting law enforcement officers.
  • Signed the Safe Policing for Safe Communities executive order to incentive local police department reforms in line with law and order.
  • Made hundreds of millions of dollars’ worth of surplus military equipment available to local law enforcement.
  • Signed an executive order to help prevent violence against law enforcement officers.
  • Secured permanent funding for the 9/11 Victim Compensation Fund for first responders.
Implemented strong measures to stem hate crimes, gun violence, and human trafficking.
  • Signed an executive order making clear that Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 applies to discrimination rooted in anti-Semitism.
  • Launched a centralized website to educate the public about hate crimes and encourage reporting.
  • Signed the Fix NICS Act to keep guns out of the hands of dangerous criminals.
  • Signed the STOP School Violence Act and created a Commission on School Safety to examine ways to make our schools safer.
  • Launched the Foster Youth to Independence initiative to prevent and end homelessness among young adults under the age of 25 who are in, or have recently left, the foster care system.
  • Signed the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act, which tightened criteria for whether countries are meeting standards for eliminating trafficking.
  • Established a task force to help combat the tragedy of missing or murdered Native American women and girls.
  • Prioritized fighting for the voiceless and ending the scourge of human trafficking across the Nation, through a whole of government back by legislation, executive action, and engagement with key industries.
  • Created the first-ever White House position focused solely on combating human trafficking.
Cherishing Life and Religious Liberty

Steadfastly supported the sanctity of every human life and worked tirelessly to prevent government funding of abortion.

  • Reinstated and expanded the Mexico City Policy, ensuring that taxpayer money is not used to fund abortion globally.
  • Issued a rule preventing Title X taxpayer funding from subsiding the abortion industry.
  • Supported legislation to end late-term abortions.
  • Cut all funding to the United Nations population fund due to the fund’s support for coercive abortion and forced sterilization.
  • Signed legislation overturning the previous administration’s regulation that prohibited states from defunding abortion facilities as part of their family planning programs.
  • Fully enforced the requirement that taxpayer dollars do not support abortion coverage in Obamacare exchange plans.
  • Stopped the Federal funding of fetal tissue research.
  • Worked to protect healthcare entities and individuals’ conscience rights – ensuring that no medical professional is forced to participate in an abortion in violation of their beliefs.
  • Issued an executive order reinforcing requirement that all hospitals in the United States provide medical treatment or an emergency transfer for infants who are in need of emergency medical care—regardless of prematurity or disability.
  • Led a coalition of countries to sign the Geneva Consensus Declaration, declaring that there is no international right to abortion and committing to protecting women’s health.
  • The first president in history to attend the March for Life.
Stood up for religious liberty in the United States and around the world.
  • Protected the conscience rights of doctors, nurses, teachers, and groups like the Little Sisters of the Poor.
  • The first president to convene a meeting at the United Nations to end religious persecution.
  • Established the White House Faith and Opportunity Initiative.
  • Stopped the Johnson Amendment from interfering with pastors’ right to speak their minds.
  • Reversed the previous administration’s policy that prevented the government from providing disaster relief to religious organizations.
  • Protected faith-based adoption and foster care providers, ensuring they can continue to serve their communities while following the teachings of their faith.
  • Reduced burdensome barriers to ensure Native Americans are free to keep spiritually and culturally significant eagle feathers found on their tribal lands.
  • Took action to ensure Federal employees can take paid time off work to observe religious holy days.
  • Signed legislation to assist religious and ethnic groups targeted by ISIS for mass murder and genocide in Syria and Iraq.
  • Directed American assistance toward persecuted communities, including through faith-based programs.
  • Launched the International Religious Freedom Alliance – the first-ever alliance devoted to confronting religious persecution around the world.
  • Appointed a Special Envoy to monitor and combat anti-Semitism.
  • Imposed restrictions on certain Chinese officials, internal security units, and companies for their complicity in the persecution of Uighur Muslims in Xinjiang.
  • Issued an executive order to protect and promote religious freedom around the world.
Safeguarding the Environment

Took strong action to protect the environment and ensure clean air and clean water.
  • Took action to protect vulnerable Americans from being exposed to lead and copper in drinking water and finalized a rule protecting children from lead-based paint hazards.
  • Invested over $38 billion in clean water infrastructure.
  • In 2019, America achieved the largest decline in carbon emissions of any country on earth. Since withdrawing from the Paris Climate Accord, the United States has reduced carbon emissions more than any nation.
  • American levels of particulate matter – one of the main measures of air pollution – are approximately five times lower than the global average.
  • Between 2017 and 2019, the air became 7 percent cleaner – indicated by a steep drop in the combined emissions of criteria pollutants.
  • Led the world in greenhouse gas emissions reductions, having cut energy-related CO2 emissions by 12 percent from 2005 to 2018 while the rest of the world increased emissions by 24 percent.
  • In FY 2019 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cleaned up more major pollution sites than any year in nearly two decades.
  • The EPA delivered $300 million in Brownfields grants directly to communities most in need including investment in 118 Opportunity Zones.
  • Placed a moratorium on offshore drilling off the coasts of Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Florida.
  • Restored public access to Federal land at Bears Ears National Monument and Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument.
  • Recovered more endangered or threatened species than any other administration in its first term.
Secured agreements and signed legislation to protect the environment and preserve our Nation’s abundant national resources.
  • The USMCA guarantees the strongest environmental protections of any trade agreement in history.
  • Signed the Save Our Seas Act to protect our environment from foreign nations that litter our oceans with debris and developed the first-ever Federal strategic plan to address marine litter.
  • Signed the Great American Outdoors Act, securing the single largest investment in America’s National Parks and public lands in history.
  • Signed the largest public lands legislation in a decade, designating 1.3 million new acres of wilderness.
  • Signed a historic executive order promoting much more active forest management to prevent catastrophic wildfires.
  • Opened and expanded access to over 4 million acres of public lands for hunting and fishing.
  • Joined the One Trillion Trees Initiative to plant, conserve, and restore trees in America and around the world.
  • Delivered infrastructure upgrades and investments for numerous projects, including over half a billion dollars to fix the Herbert Hoover Dike and expanding funding for Everglades restoration by 55 percent.
Expanding Educational Opportunity

Fought tirelessly to give every American access to the best possible education.

  • The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act expanded School Choice, allowing parents to use up to $10,000 from a 529 education savings account to cover K-12 tuition costs at the public, private, or religious school of their choice.
  • Launched a new pro-American lesson plan for students called the 1776 Commission to promote patriotic education.
  • Prohibited the teaching of Critical Race Theory in the Federal government.
  • Established the National Garden of American Heroes, a vast outdoor park that will feature the statues of the greatest Americans to ever live.
  • Called on Congress to pass the Education Freedom Scholarships and Opportunity Act to expand education options for 1 million students of all economic backgrounds.
  • Signed legislation reauthorizing the D.C. Opportunity Scholarship program.
  • Issued updated guidance making clear that the First Amendment right to Free Exercise of Religion does not end at the door to a public school.
Took action to promote technical education.
  • Signed into law the Strengthening Career and Technical Education for the 21st Century Act, which provides over 13 million students with high-quality vocational education and extends more than $1.3 billion each year to states for critical workforce development programs.
  • Signed the INSPIRE Act which encouraged NASA to have more women and girls participate in STEM and seek careers in aerospace.
  • Allocated no less than $200 million each year in grants to prioritize women and minorities in STEM and computer science education.
Drastically reformed and modernized our educational system to restore local control and promote fairness.
  • Restored state and local control of education by faithfully implementing the Every Student Succeeds Act.
  • Signed an executive order that ensures public universities protect First Amendment rights or they will risk losing funding, addresses student debt by requiring colleges to share a portion of the financial risk, and increases transparency by requiring universities to disclose information about the value of potential educational programs.
  • Issued a rule strengthening Title IX protections for survivors of sexual misconduct in schools, and that – for the first time in history – codifies that sexual harassment is prohibited under Title IX.
  • Negotiated historic bipartisan agreement on new higher education rules to increase innovation and lower costs by reforming accreditation, state authorization, distance education, competency-based education, credit hour, religious liberty, and TEACH Grants.
Prioritized support for Historically Black Colleges and Universities.
  • Moved the Federal Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Initiative back to the White House.
  • Signed into law the FUTURE Act, making permanent $255 million in annual funding for HBCUs and increasing funding for the Federal Pell Grant program.
  • Signed legislation that included more than $100 million for scholarships, research, and centers of excellence at HBCU land-grant institutions.
  • Fully forgave $322 million in disaster loans to four HBCUs in 2018, so they could fully focus on educating their students.
  • Enabled faith-based HBCUs to enjoy equal access to Federal support.
Combatting the Opioid Crisis

Brought unprecedented attention and support to combat the opioid crisis.

  • Declared the opioid crisis a nationwide public health emergency.
  • Secured a record $6 billion in new funding to combat the opioid epidemic.
  • Signed the SUPPORT for Patients and Communities Act, the largest-ever legislative effort to address a drug crisis in our Nation’s history.
  • Launched the Initiative to Stop Opioid Abuse and Reduce Drug Supply and Demand in order to confront the many causes fueling the drug crisis.
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) awarded a record $9 billion in grants to expand access to prevention, treatment, and recovery services to States and local communities.
  • Passed the CRIB Act, allowing Medicaid to help mothers and their babies who are born physically dependent on opioids by covering their care in residential pediatric recovery facilities.
  • Distributed $1 billion in grants for addiction prevention and treatment.
  • Announced a Safer Prescriber Plan that seeks to decrease the amount of opioids prescriptions filled in America by one third within three years.
  • Reduced the total amount of opioids prescriptions filled in America.
  • Expanded access to medication-assisted treatment and life-saving Naloxone.
  • Launched FindTreatment.gov, a tool to find help for substance abuse.
  • Drug overdose deaths fell nationwide in 2018 for the first time in nearly three decades.
  • Launched the Drug-Impaired Driving Initiative to work with local law enforcement and the driving public at large to increase awareness.
  • Launched a nationwide public ad campaign on youth opioid abuse that reached 58 percent of young adults in America.
  • Since 2016, there has been a nearly 40 percent increase in the number of Americans receiving medication-assisted treatment.
  • Approved 29 state Medicaid demonstrations to improve access to opioid use disorder treatment, including new flexibility to cover inpatient and residential treatment.
  • Approved nearly $200 million in grants to address the opioid crisis in severely affected communities and to reintegrate workers in recovery back into the workforce.
Took action to seize illegal drugs and punish those preying on innocent Americans.
  • In FY 2019, ICE HSI seized 12,466 pounds of opioids including 3,688 pounds of fentanyl, an increase of 35 percent from FY 2018.
  • Seized tens of thousands of kilograms of heroin and thousands of kilograms of fentanyl since 2017.
  • The Department of Justice (DOJ) prosecuted more fentanyl traffickers than ever before, dismantled 3,000 drug trafficking organizations, and seized enough fentanyl to kill 105,000 Americans.
  • DOJ charged more than 65 defendants collectively responsible for distributing over 45 million opioid pills.
  • Brought kingpin designations against traffickers operating in China, India, Mexico, and more who have played a role in the epidemic in America.
  • Indicted major Chinese drug traffickers for distributing fentanyl in the U.S for the first time ever, and convinced China to enact strict regulations to control the production and sale of fentanyl.
In Conclusion

The Trump administration's accomplishments are about putting the interest of all Americans first and foremost. And really, despite all of the Democrats' efforts to stop him from putting the concerns and well being of Americans first, he accomplished a great deal of good for us.

It would be absolutely criminal to reverse what President Trump has done for Americans. But sadly, that's exactly what the Democrats will try to do as quickly as they can. And now, because the government is in the hands of Democrats who want to take vengeance and retribution against anyone standing against them, nothing is stopping them from fulfilling their dreams of creating a Communist America where the government is in total control of our lives. 

Of course, the thought of Democrats wanting to make Americans bow conflicts with our desire to be free. When that happens, no one can predict what wrath may be heaped upon those who demand that we kneel. Kneeling in servitude to those in power is not the American way. Democrats may learn that very soon.

Tom Correa