Wednesday, February 21, 2018

Glencoe, California -- The Fun Side Of The River


Back in July of 1958, Ruby E. Taylor wrote this about Glencoe nestled in Calaveras County's Gold Country:

Glencoe, a small town of around 100 voters with a school, a post office, and store is situated about nine miles east of Mokelumne Hill. In the early days it was known as Mosquito Gulch. The early settlers mined the gulch. And on account of the marsh-land and so many water holes the mosquitoes flourished and there seemed to be more mosquitoes here than anywhere around. There were steep hills all around running down to the gulch. The first locations were taken up and the houses built right along the creek.

George W. Berry operated a store on the south side of Mosquito Gulch in 1879. Jerome Burt and son, Bill, operated a store on the north side of the Mosquito Gulch about the same time and on, until after the turn of the century. Burt’s General Store was a two-story wood structure with a post office and store room on the ground floor and a dance hall upstairs. The stairs leading up to the dance hall were on the outside of the building.

At one time the Mosquito Gulch School in the 7th District took in all the land to the east, including Rail Road Flat and Independence. This District No. 7 was divided on November 7th, 1866, under Dr. F. D. Borston, and the eastern half was called Eureka School District, which later became Rail Road Flat School District.

The gravel was very rich along Mosquito Gulch and many thousands of dollars were taken out with the crude hand mining of that day. After the placer mining, came the hard rock mines.

On Three-Cent Flat, about two miles from the main town, there were coal pits where coal was made by burning oak wood under the ground for several weeks. The coal was used by blacksmiths for sharpening mining tools. A man by the name of Benj. Franklin Woodford, nicknamed "Old Jerd," had several coal pits on the Orion Ames ranch.

After the mining had slowed up many people homesteaded small farms and ranches. This was about 1880. These names of ranchers are familiar to all old-timers: Wm. Woodcock, Bartolo Malaspina, Orion Ames, Paul Kenner, Butcher John Etcheverry, John Ames, Francis Fairchild, Swen Danielson, Pete Albers, Stodzer, Richard McNamara, Henry Prackel and the Green Meadow Farm owned by the Wilcox family. All these ranches raised an abundance of fruit, especially pears, apples, quinces, plums, cherries, peaches, grapes, berries and walnuts. These thrifty farmers raised almost entirely everything they ate.

Joe Woodcock entered the lumbering and sawmill business and used oxen to do the logging.

Numerous Indians roamed the hills at this time, and in the fall and spring of the year bands of 300 to 500 Indians, men, women, and children, would camp on the Orion Ames ranch near what they called "cold spring." They gathered acorns for winter. There are still the big ledges of slate rock on the old Orion Ames ranch upon a high hill where the Indians left round deep holes in which they ground the acorns to make acorn bread. The pestles are all packed away but the holes in the big rocks are still there as mute evidence of Indian camping grounds.

Just down on another side hill on the Green Meadow Farm was the Indian burying grounds. When my father would plough these side hills the children would find loads of Indian beads, arrowheads, and other Indian relics. Old Emma, Old Indian Susie, Indian Dick, and some others were more civilized in later years and would come to the white man’s house to beg food which was always given to them.

Another mineral in this section was soapstone. A long mountain of soapstone is on the old Orion Ames ranch about two miles southeast of Glencoe on the Rail Road Flat Road. This soapstone was sawed into blocks and sold to miners and sawmills to encase the boilers. Many ranchers used it to make fireplaces in the early homes.

-- excerpt above from Ruby Taylor’s Glencoe History, by Ruby E. Taylor, Las Calaveras, July 1958.

Glencoe is number 280 on the list of California Historical Landmarks. I tried contacting the State of California about getting the marker for our town. I thought it would add a sense of history more than there already is. Besides, I thought it would make others here feel good. 

When I spoke to a representative of the State of California about it. I was met with an interesting attitude. The state employee that I'd spoke with said that Glencoe's Historical Marker would have to be "reexamined and looked at again" to find out if we "really deserved it." I got so angry at his condescending attitude that I told the individual what he could do with his marker! 

Formerly known as "Mosquito Gulch", Glencoe started out as a mining town. The "business portion" of our "town" was actually on the north side of Mosquito Gulch. Sadly, none of the old buildings remain today.

The first mines are said to have been worked by Mexicans in the early 1850s using "arrastres" or dragging. Though some placer mining was done here, quartz mining was the main focus of mining efforts in these parts. The Good Hope Mine itself was said to have had an 18-stamp mill by 1873. Other mines in Glencoe included the Sierra King, Sierra Queen, Monte Cristo, Blue Jay, Mexican, San Bruno, Blue Bell, the Oriental, and several others.

In the 1890s, Glencoe was still dependent on mining. But during that time, ranching and farming did in fact become the dominant industries. Most families practiced what can only be called a mixed agricultural economy as they raised cattle, sheep, hogs, and poultry. Besides supplying themselves with a steady supply of meats, wool, hides, and eggs, they also grew their own vegetable gardens and orchards. And by the way, many here today raise their own beef, sheep, hogs, and poultry, and still grow our own vegetables and keep our own orchards.

While back in the day, livestock was the backbone of the agricultural industry in this county, upcountry grazing of cattle, sheep, and goats was taking place as early as 1849. During the hot summers it was not unusual for livestock herds to be moved to the mountains, and then returned to the valley below before winter sets in.

As with today, vineyards produced wines and brandies for personal use and for sale in this area. Commercial winemaking here in this county began in 1851 when 1,000 vines arrived via the Calaveras River. In parts of the county, hops were grown and baked in kilns for breweries to produce beers and ales. It doesn't take much to find olive orchards that were also grown for both family and commercial use.

The way of the world is not hard to really understand. In so far as the Gold Rush in this area goes, as mining declined something had to take it's place. Farming and ranching filled that need. It gained importance as family businesses and filled the need of supplying food.

Besides ranching and farming, logging came in a close third place. Today, many ranchers and farmers are still in this area. As for lumber, it too is still around. It's said lumber from this area played a vital role in America's war effort during World War II. Of course, it also played a huge role in the housing boom that took place at the end of the war and into the 1950's and 1960's.

For many years now, logging has been under attack by radical Environmentalists who have tried to shut down logging efforts here. Thankfully, the people who live and work here are resilient and have beaten back their attacks.

As stated before, the town were initially named "Mosquito Gulch." Actually, I found that the first post office that was opened here was named "Mosquito" in 1858. It closed in 1869. It was re-opened as "Mosquito Gulch" in 1873. The name was changed to "Glencoe" in 1912. The post office closed again in 1916, but then re-opened in 1947.

Glencoe was named after a historic village in Scotland. That village in Scotland was the site of the Glencoe Massacre back in February of 1692. 

The Glencoe Massacre or "The Massacre of Glencoe" took place in the Highlands of Scotland. It was the slaughter of 38 men of the Clan MacDonald of Glencoe. They were killed by English troops which the government had billeted in their homes. As pre-arranged, the soldiers systematically killed all of the men who they were living with. It's said that another 40 or more Scottish women and children later died of exposure due to the winter snow after they had fled and their homes were burned to the ground by the English troops. 

What took place in Glencoe, Scotland, had a profound affect on America. It is reflected in our Bill of Rights. It's true. Because of what took place there in Glencoe, the Third Amendment (Amendment III) to the United States Constitution places restrictions on the quartering of soldiers in private homes without the owner's consent. It actually forbids the practice in peacetime. 

The horrible lessons of what took place in Glencoe, Scotland, was not lost on our Founding Fathers. It is said that Amendment III is a direct response to the Quartering Act of 1774 that was passed by the British parliament during the days leading up to the Revolutionary War. The Brits wanted to put soldiers of the British Army in private residences including in alehouses and inns where Americans gathered. It was the English response to the Boston Tea Party. 

But knowing what took place in Glencoe, Scotland, and not ever wanting it to happen here, the forced quartering of troops is actually cited as one of the colonists' grievances in the Declaration of Independence.

Today, Scots from the Clan MacDonald of Glencoe come to visit their tiny namesake here in the Sierra foothills to celebrate our bond and history. The sounds of bagpipes are heard wafting through the hills each February and all are welcome to attend the festivities. 

Like the old hotel and dance hall, the old school is gone. The old Glencoe store which once also housed the post office is there, but not really. What's holding it up is really anyone's guess. It has been closed for years. A modern post office has replaced it years ago. 

We are located on Highway 26 about 9 miles northeast of the town Mokelumne Hill, about 7 miles southwest of the town of West Point, and about 7 miles north of the town of Rail Road Flat. And today the sign entering Glencoe states that we have a population of 189 and that our elevation is 2,720.  

Our main hub for goods and such is the town of Jackson about 18 miles northeast of us. Our "town" of Glencoe is more of a berg than an actual town. In reality, in my travels I've seen Ghost Towns that have larger populations than we do.  

We really only have two public buildings in use. We have a post office and our wonderful American Legion Post 376. While we are always being threatened with the possibility of the Postal Service shutting down our post office, our American Legion post is the center of all activity in our area. And please, don't be fooled by the numbers as we are an active community. 

In fact, for a place with an official population of less than 200, I've seen events at our Legion where we draw hundreds of people from all over the extended area including Jackson, San Andreas, Valley Springs, and even folks as far away as the town of Ione. I've seen what looked to be many hundreds attend a benefit to support a friend in need. And if we need more parking, all we do is open the pasture gates to a neighbor's property. They don't mind us using that pasture, and we're grateful for that and more. 

It wasn't that long ago that many of us came to the conclusion that we are "the fun side of the river." No matter if it's crossing the Mokelumne River at whatever point you'd like to, it's true. We are the fun side of the river. 

Our post is used for everything from a place where we meet and discuss county issues, to what seems as our endless number of events such as Bar-B-Q's and parties. Yes, "any reason for a party" is a common train of thought for folks in these parts as we celebrate something every month. And why not? People up here work hard and fight the odds to make it. They deserve to unwind and feel a sense of community and laugh a little.  

Calaveras County may be known for Mark Twain's famous "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" story. His yarn about jumping frogs was turned into an annual fair and Jumping Frog Jubilee years ago. Calaveras County is said to be rich with Gold Rush history, stories of Black Bart and Mark Twain, and we even have some of the biggest redwood trees in the entire world, those Giant Sequoia over at Calaveras Big Trees State Park. 

The gold found here was so uncommon a gold telluride mineral that when it was discovered in this county in 1861, it was called "Calaverite gold" because it was only found here. 

The word "Calaveras" is a Spanish word meaning "skull." The name was first given to the Calaveras River because of the hundreds of human skulls that were found along the river when the first Spanish explorers arrived. Those skulls were the remnants of wars waged between Indian tribes long before Europeans every step foot on American soil. 

Yes, Calaveras County is famous for its gold country and much more including the largest gold nugget ever found in the United States. A nugget that was taken from the Morgan Mine at Carson Hill in 1854. While Carson Hill is actually listed as a Ghost Town in Calaveras County, the nugget found there is said to have weighed 200 pounds. Some say 214 pounds.

But even with that all being true, to me and others here, Glencoe is the best place to live in these mountains. As for politics, Glencoe is no different than most all of Calaveras Country. We are so Conservative, it's said "Even our trees lean to the right" in Calaveras County. That's probably why the people here are good, genuine, loving, hard working folks. They raise their children right and straight, teach them how to thank the Lord, and are there for their neighbors for whatever reason that may arise.

How we care about each other was never more evident than during the Butte Fire in 2015. It was a fire that even "Old Timers" around here had never seen the likes of. And later, looking at the burn map and how the fire consumed over 70,000 acres of Calaveras County, I believe God spared Glencoe as the fire literally horseshoed around us.  

I have traveled all over our great nation. I have loved areas of this country for it's beauty and its wonderful people. I've been welcomed in homes of people who hardly knew me, and I've met strangers who treated me like an old friend. I've been to towns that I'd love to return to, and cities that I hope I never see again.

In fact, in some places, like say Austin, Texas, I've met snobs that were so condescending that their piss poor attitude of looking down on others seemed to be just their enjoyment. Because of those folks, I can say that I hope I never return to those cities. Fact is Austin is not like the West. It is really no different than San Francisco. They have a lot in common, especially their now-it-alls. 

Actor James Cagney once said, "The things the world most needs are simplicity, honesty and decency -- and you find them more often in the country than in the city. My feeling for the country goes beyond sense. I don't like to be in the cities at all."

Like Cagney, I'll take small towns and the country everyday. And really, that's what I like about Glencoe. There's no such thing as snobs or big city attitudes such as I found all over Austin and other big cities that I've visited. We simply don't have fake people making believe they're better than others.

As a place to live, Glencoe is a place where stress is low and feeling good about life is high. It's where one can go hunting and fishing when the feeling strikes him. A place with dirt bike trails that seem to wind every which way through the hills. A place where a cowboy and cowgirl can saddle up and freely ride the back-country to their heart's content. It's a place where kids and family are priorities.

It's a place where deer, fox, mountain lion, bobcat, bear, coyote, and other critters can be found. It's where folks know the words to "The Lord's Prayer" without a Pastor leading them in prayer. It's where everyone is armed and unafraid to respond to calls for help from neighbors. It's where there's no question if people would help a Sheriff's Deputy in trouble. That's just a given.

It's a place where favors are done out of the goodness of one's heart. Where people are free to be themselves, and no one cares about what you drive or how much money you have in the bank. Although a new tractor on your property may make one the talk of the town.

Glencoe is a place where your word is prized, the word "friend" means family, and a handshake is firm. It's where a great story is welcome, but scammers are not. It's a place where honesty is important if you want to be trusted. Where decency and respect for others is admired, and living a simple life is encouraged.

This is a place where changing for others who just got here is just not going to happen. It's a place where strangers are welcome. And are asked to fit in, if they want to stay. Fitting in and loving America are pretty much all we ask around here. Loving America is actually a pretty big deal around here. I like that. Most around here do as well.   

And while this is the fun side of the river with all of it's goings on, I'm thankful we're America's best kept secret. And yes, I feel blessed to live here.

That's just the way I see it.

Tom Correa

Sunday, February 18, 2018

News From California -- November 11th, 1857

 
The following articles are from The Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 14, Number 2068, November 11th, 1857:

THE MURDER AT JACKSON

We are indebted to the Alta Express and to Wells, Fargo and Co. for copies of the Amador Ledger, Extra, containing a full account of the atrocious murder and robbery of Martin V. B. Griswold near Jackson, California, on Saturday morning, November 7th.

The murder took place at the house of Horace Kilham, in whose employ Mr. Griswold had been for several years. Mr. Kilham had been absent from home for some days, and on his return, on Saturday afternoon, he was astonished to find his house empty, and Griswold and the Chinese cook, (the only inmates he had left there) gone. 

He soon made the discovery that his safe had been robbed of from $2,500 to $5,000. It has been since ascertained that one of his neighbors had $500 or $600 deposited in the safe, at the time of the robbery. The matter was speedily communicated to neighbors, but no great fear of the safety of Griswold was felt until Sunday afternoon.

Search had been made about the premises to discover his body if he had been murdered and concealed ; but it was not until evening, when Mr. Kilham and other friends became seriously alarmed, that the body was found concealed beneath the bed of the Chinese cook. 

There is no question, says the Ledger, but that the murder had been in contemplation for at least two weeks, and perhaps longer; and it is equally certain that the perpetrators of the deed were the Chinese cook employed at the house, assisted by two of his countrymen as confederates, with perhaps an extensive gang or company of Chinamen to ilia re (thereabouts of place) the profits of their horrid crime. 

An inquest was held by George S. Smith, the acting Coroner, and for the testimony elicited. vs  select the following statements. Dr. Hoover testified as follows: Griswold. death was caused by contused wound on the head. His skull was fractured on the back part of the head. The parietal bone was broken in by some blunt instrument, which was sufficient to create death. The wound might have been made by the piece of lead or slung-shot, which is here exhibited. 

There were three other contused wounds on the head. The skull was not fractured except in the instance already stated. These wounds might have been inflicted by the same instrument. The cord here exhibited was drawn with two half hitches around the neck, sufficiently tight to produce strangulation and death, without reference to the blows upon the head and the fracture of tho skull. From the appearance of the body the deceased came to his death from violence of the foulest character. 

F. A. Mc Martin testified to the finding of the body, us before stated, and added: "I recognize the leaden slung-shot here exhibited, as the one which I saw the Chinaman employed by Mr. Kilham as cook, grinding upon a grindstone, at Mr. Kilham's, about two weeks since, and wondered at the time what he meant to do with such a piece of lead." 

Elson Short, who passed by Mr. Kilham's house on Saturday forenoon, testified to having seen two shabbily dressed Chinamen standing under the stoop, and the Chinese cook inside the door. 

Several other witnesses were examined, after which the jury rendered their verdict, as follow: We find that Martin V. B. Griswold was foully murdered at the house of H. Kilham on the 7th of Nov. 1857, and that he came to his death by four severe blows on the head, supposed to be given by a slung-shot that was found in the Chinaman's (cook's) room. 

There was a cord drawn tight around his neck, which was sufficient to have caused his death without the blows on the head. The deceased is supposed from the evidence before the jury to have been murdered by the Chinese cook employed by Mr. H. Kilham, with his accomplices. 

The Ledger says:  From the facts already known, the conclusion is irresistibly arrived at that the plot to commit the robbery and murder was a deep-laid one, and that the Chinese cook was the leading spirit. — The degree of coolness which he manifested in making his preparations — for instance, in the manufacture of the slung-shot, which was beyond a doubt- the instrument with which the skull was fractured is astonishing. 

The plot was as ingenious as diabolical, and furnishes the strongest evidence that his murder is not the first one committed by the guilty parties. There are many known facts that do not appear in the testimony, that go strongly to fasten guilt upon the cook, and the two other Chinamen who were seen at the house shortly before the enactment of the tragedy; but there were so many evidences existing at the premises and in view of the jury, that further testimony upon which to find the verdict they did find would have been superfluous. 

The murder was undoubtedly committed between 9 and 10 o'clock, Saturday morning. The two strange Chinamen, in the garb of miners, doubtless had provided themselves with a little dust, which they offered for sale; and while Griswold was stooping over weighing or blowing it, or making a calculation of its value, he was struck in the back of the head, and the cord immediately placed and drawn tight about his neck to prevent all danger of his giving alarm, and also to prevent bleeding. 

He was dragged to the cook's room and hid away under the bed, in order that the murderers might have, as they doubtless hoped, two or three days at least the start of discovery. The board spoken of in the testimony was nailed to the bed to hide the corpse after it was stowed away. Marks of blood on the bed-rail, over which the board was nailed, could only have been put there while the villains were pushing the corpse under and before the board was nailed on. A large club evidently prepared for the use of one of the murderers if the slung-shot should fail of its purpose, was found under the bed with the murdered man.

The manner in which the cord was found around the deceased is an exact representation of the choking process by which the murderous "Thugs"in China, or Chinese Tartary, commit their villainous atrocities — throwing their noose over the necks of their victims and choking them so quickly that resistance is out of the question.

Mr. Griswold himself, some time since, observed the Chinaman making his slung-shot, and spoke of it casually to Mr. Kilham, little thinking, however, that it was being prepared for him.

The last seen of the cook was at ten o'clock am Saturday, in Jackson. This time two Chinamen hired horses at Perrin's livery stable, under pretense of going to the Q Ranch, but neither Chinamen nor horses have been heard of. One of these Chinamen was the cook. Much excitement prevails among the people, and numbers are scouring the country in pursuit of the murderers. The cook and one of the other Chinamen are well known to numerous persons in this place, and it is sincerely to be hoped that they may be captured. We hear that a reward of one thousand dollars has been offered.

Mr. Griswold was well known and highly respected. He left Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in 1848, and went to Oregon and came from there to California In 1849. He was about forty years of age.

Three Chinamen were caught and two hanged. One committed suicide.

Next story ...
Lynch Law 

A few days since, some miners at French Hill, near Camp Seco, caught two Chinamen robbing their sluice boxes, for which they gave them fifty lashes each upon the bare back, and deprived them of their tails - cutting them off. 

At Mokelumne Hill, says the Chronicle of Nov. 7th, the Johns caught one of their countrymen stealing, whereupon they tied him up to a tree, and gave him a regular administration of the Judge Lynch code in the shape of stripes well laid on.

Next story ...
Shocking Murder

Robert Brown Ripley was choked to death over a card table, on the 20th of September, at Scottsville, Virginia, by a boat builder named Carroll. Cheating is suspected.

Next story ...
Crime in Oroville 

The police report of Oroville for the month ending Nov. 5th, exhibits 43 arrests: Drunks, 23; Assault and Battery, 11; Burglary, 2; Violation of city ordinance, 2; Larceny, 4 ; Murder, 1. 

The Record says: "This exhibits as refined and city-like propensities on the part of our crime-committing population as any city or town the size of this in the Union. As an evidence of our prosperity and the efficiency of our police we are proud of it; as an interesting item we welcome it, and as a proof that as a community we need straight-jackets and missionaries, we are ashamed of it."

Next story ...
Outrage In Chicago

Reported in the Ledger: In the latter part of September, a physician at Chicago inveigled a young lady into his office, under the pretense of giving her a preparation to remove a scar from her face. He administered chloroform to her, and attempted to commit an outrage upon her person, but she was not so stupefied but that she had power to scream. 

The door was kicked open by some of those who heard her, and the medical gentleman whaled so that he did not leave his room for several days. At the last accounts, there was talk of healing his injuries with a complete suit of tar and feathers. 

Next story ...
The Lynching Cask in Solano County

A few days since, it was reported that an aged man, of Spanish blood had been lynched on Putah Creek, on a charge of having stolen a horse from Mr. Wolfskill, of which charge it was afterwards shown that he was innocent. The Eco del Pacifico contains a letter in regard to the circumstances of this lynching, from which the Alta translates as follows :

While the unfortunate but honest old man in question was on a visit in Contra Costa, someone stole a saddle from his horse on the Vaca ranch in the Putah Valley. When he returned he heard of the theft, and was told that his saddle was at Wolfskill's, and he went to claim it. He recognized the saddle, but Wolfskill began to question him, and told him he must go before a Judge. 

A party of twenty men, including Wolfskill, surrounded him and said that he had been a criminal, and started with him. One by one the party dropped off, until only about four remained, Wolfskill being in command. When they arrived at a desert place, Wolfskill and his friends spoke together in a low voice, and surrounding the old man, so that he should not escape, they left the road leading to the Judge's, and started toward a place in the mountain where there is a thick wood. 

The old man broke away from his keepers, and attempted to escape. He rode twelve miles, and his pursuers after him, to Vacaville, where the Judge lives. Arrived here, the old man inquired of an American lady, "Who is the Judge? Where does he live?" 

While he was trying, in mixed English and Spanish, to make himself understood, his persecutors came upon him, and began to beat him. They tore him by force from the arms of the merciful woman, who bravely stepped between the old man and a drawn pistol, aimed at him, and cried out that they should not murder him. 

The captors ordered" the old man to go with them, he cried out for the protection of the law. He asked several times, in a loud voice, "Who is the Judge? Who speaks Spanish? Who is a Christian?" More than forty Americans witnessed this scene, and not one raised his voice.

Wolfskill and his party drove their prisoner to the place where he had escaped, and there he was hanged upon a tree and almost killed. This is not the first outrage which has happened in that vicinity. 

About three years ago, a man of Spanish blood was one morning found dead, hanging to a tree, not far from Wolfskill's. The deceased in that case had no friends, and the murderers went unpunished. A few months ago some men in masks lynched and lashed two or three Americans; but the officers took hold of the matter and the offenders had to bleed to the extent of eight or ten thousand dollars, before they could escape the punishment they merited.

So says the Eco. If these charges, so publicly made, in a paper of considerable circulation, be false, we hope they will be contradicted; if true, we may confess that there are some barbarians in California who deserve to be classed with the savages of Cavorca.

Next story ...
Shooting Affair

At the Webber House in Stockton, on Sunday evening, Nov. 5th, a shooting affair took place between two negro barbers named Hyers and Gilliard, which had its origin in a fit of jealousy. 

The Argus says: "Gilliard demanded a retraction of some statement made by Hyers, which the latter refused, where upon Gilliard drew a revolver and fired, but being too close to his mark, missed him. Hyers ran through the hall into the bar-room where Gilliard fired another shot, which also failed to take effect. 

Hyers made his escape into the street, where a third shot was fired by Gilliard, but missed its mark. Hyers ran up Center Street, and Gilliard made his escape in another direction. 

A person standing near the entrance to the bar-room, as Gilliard passed out, drew his pistol and " took a shot " at him "on suspicion."

-- end of articles from The Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 14, Number 2068, November 11th, 1857.

These articles are reprinted here as they were seen in 1857. I hope you enjoyed this glimpse into life during that time period as much as I did. 

Tom Correa


Thursday, February 15, 2018

Why We Need Values and Morals

 


With the recent school shooting by a former student in Florida, many are again focused on gun control. It's a very good bet that many will want more background checks, less ammunition, more registration, less ability to own certain types of firearms, and so on. It's just the same old same old that comes out of the media and by way of politicians after every mass shooting.

Should we become jaded to such things? No. Should we look for answers? Yes. Should we pay attention to the same old calls to disarm the entire nation because of the enormity of the crime? Frankly, I ignore them.

We should not become jaded to such things because that in itself solves nothing. We must remain involved with our heads and our hearts because it will take clear thinking and an emotional commitment to find solutions to such senseless acts. 

Solutions are what's needed.

We don't want to turn our schools into prisons with sentry towers, rows of barbed wire, sally ports, a turnkey system of area entry, armed guards, and more. Besides, show me one Correctional Facility that does not have it's problems with drugs and weapons making it's way into such facilities? Show me one Correction Facility that does not have violence and/or killings, assaults on each other and the guards? Fact is, they all do even with supposedly tight security.

Correctional Facilities show us that we cannot make our grade schools to resemble prisons because even prisons have assaults and killings. 

And here's a thought, while that's true and even prisons have assaults and killings, it's interesting to note that we never ever hear of a prisoner returning to prison to shoot up inmates and guards for some unknown reason. The reason for this is that the guards are heavily arms and will not hesitate to use deadly force against such a maniac if he tried to breach security.

Knowing that, should we secure our schools to protect our children? Should we arm our schools? Should we hire veterans who have been trained in the use of small arms and have close combat skills? Should we spend the needed funds to meet an assault with sufficient firepower as to seriously deter and halt such an attack? 

We do in prisons, but also in all sorts of government buildings where we want to keep people safe. In Washington, we keep anti-gun Democrats safe with guards wearing guns. They don't seem to mind that. 

When wanting to keep people safe, we spend the money and institute training while preparing for such an attack. As with us who have served in our nation's military, we know that our training is all about being ready if we're needed. 

Looking at the entire list of school shootings that has taken place since 2000, we need to take note that there have been a large number of "school shootings" where the shooting was workplace violence between employees, was gang related, drug related, self-inflicted, and off school premises. We need to also note that a number of cases resulted in no one being killed. Also, there is this. In many situations, situations where a shooter is intent on inflicting as most carnage as possible, the shooters are in many instances stopped by the heroic actions of others who decided to act.  

The anti-gun faction in America will not allow this latest tragedy to slip by without using it for their own political goals. They see the deaths of those there as a way to get what they want. They want guns banned in America. I used to think it was certain guns until I realized that they want all guns banned. 

Their number one target is the AR-15 style of rifle. These rifles are not the civilian equivalent of M-16 rifles used by the U.S. military since the Vietnam War. The Liberal media doesn't want you to know that. They want you to believe that the AR-15 is a "fully-automatic" military style of "assault weapon" the "same as" the M-16 rifle. 

They do not want you to know that millions of law abiding Americans own AR-15s. They are simply that popular. Are they popular because they are not very complicated and easy to use and maintain?  Probably, but they are also very versatile and can be used in things such as hunting wild boar to being used in shooting competitions.    

The Liberal Left says that we should ban them because they do more harm than good. Of course, if we use that logic, then we should ban all cars that can go faster than the speed limit allows. Fact is, speeding kills more Americans in one month than all of the AR-15s ever made has ever killed anyone in our nation. 

You don't hear people wanting to ban cars. That's a laughable suggestion. It's the same as banning hospitals knowing that more people die in hospitals than in all of the shooting incidents in America in any one year. Yes, hospitals and misdiagnoses kill more than all guns do. But as we both know, no one's going to ban hospitals or even call for such a ludicrous ban whether the stats justify such a thing. 

There is another thing that we need to look at. We can ban all AR-15s, but let's remember that school shooting have been going on for a lot longer than the AR-15 has been around. Banning one type of gun will not stop such a tragedy from taking place.

The first official school shooting took place in Greencastle, Pennsylvania, on July 26th, 1764. It's known as the Enoch Brown School Massacre. 

It took place when four Delaware Indians entered the schoolhouse in Pennsylvania. Once inside they shot and killed schoolmaster Enoch Brown, and nine children. Two children were able to get away and ran for help. When support arrived, they found that the teacher was shot while the 9 children had been scalped.

So where are we? 

Passing new laws means nothing to someone intent on breaking the law. No law could have prevented what took place in Florida, just as no law could have stopped the mass shooting at the movie theater in Aurora, Colorado.

Statistics tell us that school shootings, real mass shootings, and not simply some drug related shooting between a drug dealer and his buyer from a school, are up. We can arm teachers, and/or hire trained military veterans as armed security to meet the threat. But frankly, I don't see Liberals going for that. They see armed protection as justifying the existence of guns instead of vilifying them as being worthless to society.

So how about we think outside of the box? How about we get away from "the Earth is flat" crowd of no solutions other than going after guns? How about we look at what can be done from inside the school? 

I've talked about armed protection situated inside our schools, but how about teaching young minds the difference between right and wrong? And before you laugh, ask yourself this, why have school shootings and the number of victims increased since the 1950 when such things were common place? Could it be that we as a society are no longer teaching the difference between right and wrong? 

Could it be a matter of convenience in some way that it's not taught these days? Yes, convenience in that some people might not want people to recognize right from wrong? In what way would that ever be the case you ask?

Well, imagine a few generations of people being brought up believing that there is nothing wrong with funding a corporation that sells the parts of dead babies? Imagine a whole political party taught that it's OK to call for the assassination of an American president just because you didn't agree with his policies? Imagine more than 50% of the American public accepting what they know is not right all for the sack of putting their candidate into office, and believing that it's OK to riot and assault others because she wasn't elected? 

Image millions of people who blindly accept what they hear in the news media even though it is ripe with fake news that targets Conservatives? Imagine a sector of our society that believes that they are above the law and can do whatever they want without consequence? These are all examples of people who do not know the difference between right and wrong. And if they do, they simply don't care! 

So why not teach right from wrong in our schools? 

Why not teach that the next person's life is just as precious as yours? Why not teach that all lives mater and not just a certain group? Why not impress upon upcoming generations that being good is not bad? That being honest and straight with others is the way to go in life?

Why not teach kids values and morals? Why not teach the importance of trying to be good, fair, honest? Why not teach the idea that hard work and achievement is a value that serves one for a lifetime? Why not teach the Golden Rule of treating others as you yourself want to be treated? Why not teach how treating others as you want to be treated reflects well on you?

We need to teach values and morals. We need to teach respect and common courtesy for others. We need to teach youngsters how some ways of treating others in simply wrong. We need to teach the life has consequences and there is such a thing as right from wrong.

It is important. Moral development teaches emotional development. It teaches that we need to feel guilty when doing wrong. It teaches that we need to feel bad just thinking about doing something bad. It also teaches that we should accept our responsibility for behaving in ways that are unacceptable and offends others.

While my suggestion won't stop truly evil people from doing evil, maybe bucking the system and teaching kids to be good is part of what we need to look at to address this problem? Maybe we should keep talking about how to secure our schools better? But also, maybe we should not allow society to teach our children how to be cruel without doing something to fight that?

Besides, I think we should ask if our schools can do something more than just teach lock-down drills? At the least, maybe we can stop horrible people who don't know the difference between right and wrong from behaving horribly? Imagine that.


That's just the way I see it.

Tom Correa

Friday, February 9, 2018

Wild Bill Hickok versus Dave Tutt 1865


For some time after the close of the war Springfield was the resort of many hard characters. Adventures of every sort came in and met the ruffians of both armies, who, lately disbanded, were seeking a livelihood by any means not involving hard work. Among those who were in the town in the summer of 1865 was one J. B. Hickok, who came to be known as "Wild Bill," and as such has been made the hero of divers improbable adventures set forth in certain flashy, sensational publications.

Hickok had been in the Federal service in Southwest Missouri and Northern Arkansas, as a scout for the army of the frontier, and in the performance of his duties had grown to be well acquainted with danger, and being by nature a ruffian he soon became a desperado—a drunken, swaggering fellow, who delighted when "on a spree" to frighten nervous men and timid women.

After settling in Springfield a favorite diversion of his was to ride his horse on sidewalks and into saloons, hotels, stores, and other public places, and make the animal lie down and perform other tricks, to the infinite delight, no doubt, of the proprietors, none of whom, unfortunately, had grit enough to blow the bully's head off.

A man after Wild Bill's own heart was one David Tutt, an ex-Confederate soldier, who had lived at Yellville, Arkansas, and had come, with his mother, sister and younger brothers, to Springfield, early in the spring. Tutt was a ruffian and a crack pistol shot. He was said to have "gotten in his work," not only on Federal soldiers, but on citizens who had crossed his path against his protest.

Both Tutt and Hickok were gamblers, and good ones, although the ex-Confederate was the more proficient of the two. The two men were boon companions for a time; the one touch of ruffianism made them both akin. They walked the streets together, they drank together, they gambled together—and in the latter pastime Tutt effectually "cleaned out" Bill.

On the night of the 20th of July the two men played poker in a room at the "Lyon House," now the Southern Hotel, on South street. Hickok was the loser. First his money went; then his watch, a fine gold hunting-cased "Waltham," with a flashy chain and seal, then his diamond (?) pin and ring.

He rose from the table completely "strapped," and much irritated and crest-fallen. Everybody knew Wild Bill's watch, and after it had been surrendered to Tutt this night, Bill asked him at a special favor, not to wear it publicly, or let people know that it had changed owners, as he (Bill) felt bad enough already and did not want the evidence of his misfortune, of his ill-luck and bad playing, flaunted in everybody's face.

Tutt laughed a mocking laugh at Bill's humiliation, and assured him that it would give him as much pleasure to wear the watch on the streets as it had already given him to win it. "I intend wearing it in the morning," he added. Bill replied with an oath, "If you do, I'll shoot you, and I warn you not to come across the square with it on." The two men parted and retired to their rooms—to put fresh caps, on their revolvers!

The next morning Tutt put on his watch,—and his revolver, too, and went down on the square. Going along the west side he entered the livery stable on the northwest corner and sat in the door where he could command a view of all four sides of the square, and especially of the Lyon House and South street. Very soon afterward Hickok came out of the hotel and down on the square, at the corner of South street.

He stood on the west side of the street, and stopping one or two passersby inquired if they had seen "Dave Tutt down town this morning?"

On being told that Tutt was on the square, Bill said, "Well, it's all right if he hain't got my watch on, but if he has there'll be merry hell, you bet your life!"

Tutt's younger brother came up, and to him Bill said, "You had better go and tell Dave to take off that watch;" and when young Tutt said he thought his brother had a right to wear what he pleased if it belonged to him, Bill answered, "He shan't wear that watch anyhow." 

Just then Tutt came out of the livery stable and walked south along the square. Bill saw him and exclaimed, "There he comes now." The little group about Bill scattered, and he took a few steps forward and drew his revolver, a Colt's dragoon, with cap and ball.

Just as Tutt reached the corner of the courthouse and Campbell street, Bill called out, "Dave, don't you come across here with that watch." 

Tutt, as some say, drew his pistol, and almost instantly Bill fired, using one arm as a rest for his revolver. Tutt fell, shot nearly through the heart, and died very soon. Some deposed that Tutt's revolver was out of its scabbard when the body was first examined, and that Tutt had fired first.

One chamber of the revolver was empty, and there were those who swore that they heard two pistol shots. Bill's shot was a fine one, but it is said by those who knew him well that it was a chance shot, for it is averred that when here Wild Bill was not considered a crack shot at all, and that his shot which killed Tutt at a distance of 75 yards was an accident.

As soon as he had fired and seen that his shot had taken effect Bill handed over his pistols to the sheriff, who came up, and informed that officer he was his prisoner. A few minutes afterward Bill was observed riding leisurely up South street taking the morning air. The circuit court was in session at the time. 

Bill was promptly indicted, arrested on a bench warrant, and brought to trial. He was vigorously prosecuted by the circuit attorney, Maj. R. W. Fyan, and ably defended by Hon. John S. Phelps. Witnesses testified that they heard two shots, and that the first came from near where Tutt's body was found.

The empty chamber of Tutt's revolver was exhibited, and upon the ground of "reasonable doubt" that Hickok was the aggressor, the jury acquitted him. There were those, however, who, asserted that Hickok was cleared because he was an ex-Federal and a Radical, and the man he shot was a "rebel," and the jury were all men who could take the "Drake oath."

A prominent attorney harangued the crowd from the balcony of the court house, and denounced the verdict as against the evidence and all decency, and there were threats of lynching Bill, but nothing was done, and he was allowed to live until shot by another desperate character, named Jack McCall, at Deadwood, D. T.

-- end of article.

The above article is from "Killing of Dave Tutt by 'Wild Bill,'" in History of Greene County, Missouri, by R. I. Holcombe, 1883. The above article is known as the "Holcombe version" of the gunfight. Even though it was published 18 years later, I hope you enjoyed reading how some folks reported that gunfight. 

The shooting took place on July 21st, 1865, right there in the town square of Springfield, Missouri. As for Dave Tutt? He was actually hit under the armpit and the bullet traveled across his chest. His body was initially buried in the old cemetery inside the city limits. Then in March of 1883, Lewis Tutt who was his half-brother, and a former slave of the Tutt family, had him disinterred and then reburied in Maple Park cemetery.

When I visited the spot where the shooting took place, I remember meeting a very knowledgeable older gentleman who was a retired police officer. Soon enough we were talking about law enforcement and comparing notes as to what we thought of this story. 

We questioned the length of the shot and wondered how true that was. He was very knowledgeable about the whole story, and frankly I wasn't. While I was really new to the finer details of the story, he wasn't. He knew all sorts of things pertaining to the particulars of the incident. Actually, he knew a great deal about Hickok himself including some very interesting trivia. 

I did ask him something that he said he didn't know the answer to. He said it was something that he never really thought about though he considered himself pretty versed on the whole thing. I asked him if he knew what ever happened to that watch?

Since it was supposedly enough to kill someone over, I wanted to know if it sat in some museum today? I wanted to know what made it so valuable? Was it a family piece passed down from father to son for generations? Was it a gift from his mother or a woman he once loved? Was he awarded it for service in the military? I wanted to know where to find it since I'd never seen a watch that was valuable enough to kill over. 

My time overseas in the Marine Corps taught me that life is precious and not taken frivolously. Even today, I do not take threats lightly.

So for me, I wanted to know how a watch could be so important, so valuable, that a man would kill over it? I wanted to know how it could be taken as so valuable to kill over yet at the same time be used it to pay off a wager? That is, if we are to believe that a pocket watch was the reason for this shooting? 

The old gentleman claimed he did not know what became of the watch. He agreed that the watch seems to have been a forgotten part of this story. He said that he'd been a fan of Hickok for years and never thought about where the watch ended up. He said that he was a little surprised at that since he knew a great deal of trivia about James Butler "Wild Bill" Hickok.

I remember him telling me that he knew it wasn't on him when he was killed in Deadwood. Then after thinking about it awhile, he said he simply didn't know what ever became of it. He sort of laughed and speculated that maybe Hickok lost it in another poker game? Or maybe he sold it to buy booze? Maybe he hocked it or used it as a way to buy a meal? Then again, maybe it wasn't that important after all? 

As the old gentleman asked, "Who knows if he used the watch as just an excuse to kill Tutt? Who will ever know?"

Of course I've heard the whole shooting was actually over a woman, but I don't know if that's true or not. Besides, I'm not interested in a love triangle. I'm a lot more curious about what ever happened to that watch. If it's not in a museum today, because of its connection to that shooting, it's probably worth a great deal of money these days. 
  
Tom Correa


Tuesday, February 6, 2018

The Tombstone Epitaph's "The Cow-boy Nuisance" 1881


The Tombstone Epitaph, published the following editorial on September 16th, 1881:

The Cow-boy Nuisance

Tombstone Sept. 16 -- Has anyone stopped for a moment to consider the present state of affairs in Arizona, and what the end will be? It has come to pass in this county that life and personal property are unsafe; even in the town of Tombstone it seems as if one of the leading industries is to be destroyed.

There is not a teamster today who is not in fear and dread of the cow-boys, or so-styled "rustlers" depriving him of his hard earnings (I say hard earnings, for if there is a man who gains his living by the sweat of his brow, it is the man who from early morn till late at night pulls and tugs along through mud and rain, dust, and heat, with a six or eight mule team, or the man who shoulders a bull whip and tramps all day long yelling and pounding seven or eight yoke of oxen) How must such men feel to be robbed by a hand of thieves and cutthroats, who take pride in announcing to the public that they are "rustlers!"

Where is the teamsters protection? Can you find any officers who will follow, arrest and recover your property? If you can, I would like to see him. And how do teamsters act to one another in such matters?

They stand still, for the "rustlers" tell them, "you won't be troubled if you leave us alone." So they take the man's cattle ahead of you, and you won't help him, for you have had an understanding; and then they take yours; the man behind you won't help you for he is "solid," having had an understanding with them; and then they take his, and so it goes.

Another thing, teamsters are afraid; they follow, intending to fight, they get close to their stock, are met and told to go back, and back they go. These chaps seem to have no difficulty in evading the law, while others, not inclined to work, daily join the band and they are increasing fast in numbers. Our town is filled with spies watching every move of the officers and imparting their information to their comrades. Just let a stage be robbed and in less than twelve hours no less than twelve "rustlers" will come and go. It is having a dreadfully depressing effect upon all kinds of business.

Men who come to examine different mines outside of town, when they learn how the cow-boys stand fellows up, do not wish to run such risks; they quietly take the road they came and get into civilization as soon as possible. Just look at the number of oxen stolen in the last six weeks between here and Morse's Mills; and, to cap off with, they stopped what was left of the train they had robbed, and told the owners; "Travel this no further: if you do we will kill you and take your oxen," and they there and then forced them there and then unyoke. That was done within four miles of this town on last Sunday morning.

I think it is time the people did something. There are men not afraid of them, but those men are in various employments. They won't quit work and go on the trail unless the people will make it an object. Ten armed men, well mounted, can, in sixty days, bring to justice many a "rustler." Put the right men in the field and give them the proper leader, and see how soon peace will be restored to the community, and business will resume its happy and prosperous course again.

-- end of The Tombstone Epitaph article,

Newspapers can help calm things down or inflame a situation. Some have told me that The Tombstone Epitaph newspaper poured gas on the fire with this editorial. From what I can tell, there's no mistaking what The Tombstone Epitaph thought of the Cowboy faction in that town. This summed it up.

The above article was published by The Tombstone Epitaph about a month before the now famous gunfight near the OK Corral. As most of us know, that gunfight on October 26, 1881, resulted in the killing of three cowboys.
Tom Correa




Thursday, February 1, 2018

Virgil Earp -- Newspaper Interview 1882

An interview with Virgil Earp as reported by the Arizona Daily Star on May 30th, 1882:

The San Francisco Examiner of the 27th contains an interview with Virgil Earp, from which the following extracts are made: "I was born in Kentucky but was raised in Illinois and Iowa. My parents came to this state, settling in San Bernardino, near Colton, at which later place they now live. I served for a lit­tle over three years in the war, in an Illinois regiment, and then came to California in 1866. I soon went into New Mexico, Ari­zona and all that southern country, where I have spent nearly six years.

When Tombstone was discovered I was in Prescott. The first stage that went out of Prescott toward Tombstone was rob­bed. Robberies were frequent and became expensive, and the dis­ordered condition of the new country soon brought a demand for the better protection of business and money, as well as life. I was asked to go to Tombstone in my capacity as United States Marshal, and went. My brother Wyatt and myself were fairly well treated for a time, but when the desperate characters who were congregated there, and who had been unaccustomed to troublesome molestation by the authorities, learnt that we meant business and determined to stop their rascality, if possible, they began to make it warm for us. 

The Tombstone country is of a pe­culiar character, the community being unsettled and dangerous. Most of the business men there stayed simply to make money enough to live somewhere else comfortably, and of course the greatest object with them is to have as much money as possible spent in the town and to get as much of it as they can, careless of the means of dispensation or the results of rough manners. Aside from the legitimate business men the bulk of the residents are idle or desperate characters, most of them coming into town broke and depending upon the gambling tables or criminal ven­tures to supply them with means of livelihood and dissipation.

The Cowboys numbered at one time nearly 200 but during the last two years about fifty of them have been killed. The most of them are what we call "saddlers," living almost wholly in the saddle and largely engaged in raiding into Sonora and adjacent country and stealing cattle, which they sell in Tombstone. It is rarely that any of these stolen cattle are recovered. 

When the thieves are closely pursued and it seems likely that they will be overhauled and the stock re­covered, the cowboys sell the cattle to some of the butchers prac­tically in partnership with them, and I know of cases where the finest cattle in the country have been sold at a dollar a head. When cattle are not handy the cowboys rob stages and engage in similar enterprises to raise money. 

As soon as they are in funds they ride into town, drink, gamble and fight. They spend their money as free as water in the saloons, dance houses or faro banks, and this is one reason they have so many friends in town. All that large class of degraded characters who gather the crumbs of such carouses stand ready to assist them out of any trouble or into any paying rascality. The saloons and gambling houses, into whose treasuries most of the money is ultimately turned, receive them cordially and must be called warm friends of the cowboys. 

A good many of the merchants fear to express themselves against the criminal element because they want to keep the patronage of the cowboys' friends, and the result is that when any conflict be­tween the officers and cattle thieves or stage robbers occurs, fol­lowed up by shootings around town, as witnessed during the last few months, most of the expression of opinion comes from the desperado class and their friends, and the men who should speak loudest and most decisively to correct the condition of affairs are generally the quietest. 

An officer doing his duty must rely almost entirely upon his own conscience for encouragement. The sym­pathy of the respectable portion of the community may be with him but it is not openly expressed.

The bad element knows its advantage in this respect, and makes the most of it. The cowboys are collected from all parts of the Western country, from which they have been crowded by advancing civilization, and they know that Arizona is about the only place left for them to operate in as an organization. With a complete breaking up of their company threatened in event of losing their hold where they are now, they resist official interference with the greatest desperation. 

Concerning the fights between the cowboys and myself and brothers, it has been stated over and over again that there was an old feud between us and some of our enemies, and that we were fighting only to revenge personal wrongs and grati­fy personal hatred. All such statements are false. We went into Tombstone to do our duty as officers. To do that we were put in conflict with a band of desperadoes, and it resolved itself into a question of which side could first drive the other out of the country, or kill them in it. Today my brother Morg is dead and I am a cripple for life. My other brothers are fugitives, but they will give themselves up. It was our boys who killed Stillwell [sic].

Before Stillwell died he confessed that he killed Morg and gave the names of those who were implicated with him. When my brothers were leaving Arizona they got dispatches from Tucson saying that Stillwell and a party of friends were watching all the railroad trains pass­ing that way, and they were going through them in search of all Earps and their friends, carrying shotguns under their overcoats and promising to kill on sight. 

Our boys were hound to look out for themselves, and when they got near Tucson were very cauti­ous. They found StilIwell near the track and killed him. For the first time the Sheriff has shown anxiety to arrest someone, and the boys are keeping out of his way. The Court in Tombstone does not sit again for six months yet, and they don't want to lie in jail all that time waiting for trial, hut when the Court sits again they will give themselves up, and, with fair play, will be acquitted. 

The press dispatches that have been sent here have been very un­fair to us and have been made to conform to a plan to carry all these fights into politics this season. I am a Republican. My brothers are Democrats. I am sorry to see the thing taken into politics as a personal measure, because the true aspect of the trouble will be lost and new enmities are likely to be created. 

I heard that Doc Holliday, one of our friends about whom there has been considerable talk, had been captured at Denver. Word was sent to me that he would be taken out on a writ of habeas corpus, and that before an officer from the Territory could reach him he would be released. I do not know if he succeeded in get­ting off or not.

There was something very peculiar about Doc. He was gentlemanly, a good dentist, a friendly man, and yet outside of us boys I don't think he had a friend in the Territory. Tales were told that he had murdered men in differ­ent parts of the country; that he had robbed and committed all manner of crimes, and yet when persons were asked how they knew it they could only admit that it was hearsay, and that noth­ing of the kind could really be traced up to Doc's account. 

He was a slender, sickly fellow, but whenever a stage was robbed or row started, and help was needed, Doc was one of the first to saddle his horse and report for duty. The stories, at one time widely circulated, that we were in with the cowboys and quarrel­ed over division of the spoils, was ridiculous. It was at least disbe­lieved by Wells, Fargo & Co., who I represented, and while I was City Marshal they gave me this." 

The speaker here displayed on the inside of his coat a large gold badge, a five pointed star set in­side of a circular band, inscribed on one side, "City Marshal, Tombstone, A.T.," and on the other, "V. W. Earp, with Compli­ments of Wells, Fargo & Co." 

Mr. Earp was in such pain that for the time his story was cut short. He was met by two friends, who accompanied him to this city, where he will remain about thirty days. Yesterday he was placed under the care of a leading surgeon, and was unable to receive visitors, keeping himself well secluded. His escape from death by his last wounds was remark­able. Besides the shot which crippled his arm, he was shot clean through the body, and upon the day following that upon which the dead body of his brother reached the home of his parents, he, too, arrived at Colton, expecting to die. Though in good health otherwise, his arm will prevent any further active participation in the sensational warfare against the cowboys.

-- end of the Arizona Daily Star article of May 30th, 1882.

While I found a number of claims pretty interesting, the first thing that I found of real note is when he said that "the Cowboys numbered at one time nearly 200 but during the last two years about fifty of them have been killed." I'd really like to find where he or that reporter got those numbers from? Was there 200 rustlers, robbers, and killers in the Tombstone area when he was there? Who were they?

Also, I would think the deaths of 50 outlaws in a two year period of time would be big news across the entire nation. I can't help but wonder if he meant that he himself killed 50 outlaws? I don't know of any law enforcement officer who has killed 50 outlaws in two years. Especially knowing that he arrived in Tombstone in November of 1879 and left there in March of 1882. That's a lot of killing in a very short time and I'd think there would be some mention of that somewhere to verify it or not?  For me, I actually doubt that he said that. 

I like that he did admit that Wyatt and Warren were running from the law as they were wanted for murder after their so-called "vendetta". Of course he was part wrong when he said, "My other brothers are fugitives, but they will give themselves up." They never did. 

Also it's very interesting is that he said "I am a Republican. My brothers are Democrats." I've read where all of the Earps were supposedly Republicans and that there are some writers who have tried to make the tension between the Earps and the Clantons-McLaurys into a Republican versus Democrat situation. So this makes me wonder if those writers knew what they're talking about.

For the record, I've always thought Virgil Earp was the best lawman that the Earp family produced. While I have a great deal of respect for Virgil, I don't know how much of the interview above is embellishment on the part of the reporter.

I hope you found this as interesting as I do. 

Tom Correa