Theodore Roosevelt, 1903

"Let us speak courteously, deal fairly, and keep ourselves armed and ready." - Theodore Roosevelt, 1903

Sunday, June 8, 2014

Cowboys on the American Frontier

By Emerson Hough (1918)

The Great West, vast and rude, brought forth men also vast and rude.

We pass today [1918] over parts of that matchless region, and we see the red hills and ragged mountain-fronts cut and crushed into huge indefinite shapes, to which even a small imagination may give a human or more than human form.

It would almost seem that the same great hand which chiseled out these monumental forms had also laid its fingers upon the people of this region and fashioned them rude and iron-like, in harmony with the stern faces set about them.

Of all the babes of that primeval mother, the West, the cowboy was perhaps her dearest because he was her last.

Some of her children lived for centuries; this one for not a triple decade before he began to be old.

What was really the life of this child of the wild region of America, and what were the conditions of the experience that bore him, can never be fully known by those who have not seen the West with wide eyes -- for the cowboy was simply a part of the West.

He who does not understand the one can never understand the other.

If we care truly to see the cowboy as he was and seek to give our wish the dignity of a real purpose, we should study him in connection with his surroundings and in relation to his work.

Then we shall see him not as a curiosity but as a product -- not as an eccentric driver of horned cattle but as a man suited to his times.

Large tracts of that domain where once the cowboy reigned supreme have been turned into farms by the irrigator's ditch or by the dry-farmer's plan.

The farmer in overalls is in many instances his own stockman today.

On the ranges of Arizona, Wyoming, and Texas and parts of Nevada we may find the cowboy, it is true, even today: but he is no longer the Homeric figure that once dominated the plains.

In what we say as to his trade, therefore, or his fashion in the practice of it, we speak in terms of thirty or forty years ago, when wire was unknown, when the round-up still was necessary, and the cowboy's life was indeed that of the open.

By the costume we may often know the man.

The cowboy's costume was harmonious with its surroundings.

It was planned upon lines of such stern utility as to leave no possible thing which we may call dispensable.

The typical cowboy costume could hardly be said to contain a coat and waistcoat.

The heavy woolen shirt, loose and open at the neck, was the common wear at all seasons of the year excepting winter, and one has often seen cowboys in the winter-time engaged in work about the yard or corral of the ranch wearing no other cover for the upper part of the body but one or more of these heavy shirts.

If the cowboy wore a coat he would wear it open and loose as much as possible.

If he wore a "vest" he would wear it slouchily, hanging open or partly unbuttoned most of the time.

There was a reason for this slouchy habit. The cowboy would say that the vest closely buttoned about the body would cause perspiration, so that the wearer would quickly chill upon ceasing exercise.

If the wind were blowing keenly when the cowboy dismounted to sit upon the ground for dinner, he would button up his waistcoat and be warm.

If it were very cold he would button up his coat also.

The cowboy's boots were of fine leather and fitted tightly, with light narrow soles, extremely small and high heels.

Surely a more irrational foot-covering never was invented; yet these tight, peaked cowboy boots had a great significance and may indeed be called the insignia of a calling.

There was no prouder soul on earth than the cowboy.  He was proud of being a horseman and had a contempt for all human beings who walked.

On foot in his tight-toed boots he was lost; but he wished it to be understood that he never was on foot.

If we rode beside him and watched his seat in the big cow saddle we found that his high and narrow heels prevented the slipping forward of the foot in the stirrup, into which he jammed his feet nearly full length.

If there was a fall, the cowboy's foot never hung in the stirrup.

In the corral roping, afoot, his heels anchored him. So he found his little boots not so unserviceable and retained them as a matter of pride.

Boots made for the cowboy trade sometimes had fancy tops of bright-colored leather.

The Lone Star of Texas was not infrequent in their ornamentation.

The curious pride of the horseman extended also to his gloves. The cowboy was very careful in the selection of his gloves.

They were made of the finest buckskin, which could not be injured by wetting.

Generally they were tanned white and cut with a deep cuff or gauntlet from which hung a little fringe to flutter in the wind when he rode at full speed on horseback.

The cowboy's hat was one of the typical and striking features of his costumes.

It was a heavy, wide, white felt hat with a heavy leather band buckled about it.

There has been no other head covering devised so suitable as the Stetson for the uses of the Plains, although high and heavy black hats have in part supplanted it today among stockmen.

The boardlike felt was practically indestructible. The brim flapped a little and, in time, was turned up and perhaps held fast to the crown by a thong.

The wearer might sometimes stiffen the brim by passing a thong through a series of holes pierced through the outer edge.

He could depend upon his hat in all weathers. In the rain it was an umbrella; in the sun a shield; in the winter he could tie it down about his ears with his handkerchief.

Loosely thrown about the cowboy's shirt collar was a silk kerchief.

It was tied in a hard knot in front, and though it could scarcely be said to be devoted to the uses of a neck scarf, yet it was a great comfort to the back of the neck when one was riding in a hot wind. It was sure to be of some bright color, usually red.

Modern would-be cowpunchers do not willingly let this old kerchief die, and right often they over-play it.

For the cowboy of the "movies," however, let us register an unqualified contempt.

The real range would never have been safe for him.

A peculiar and distinctive feature of the cowboy's costume was his "chaps" (chaparejos).

The chaps were two very wide and full-length trouser-legs made of heavy calfskin and connected by a narrow belt or strap.

They were cut away entirely at front and back so that they covered only the thigh and lower legs and did not heat the body as a complete leather garment would.

They were intended solely as a protection against branches, thorns, briers, and the like, but they were prized in cold or wet weather.

Sometimes there was seen, more often on the southern range, a cowboy wearing chaps made of skins tanned with the hair on; for the cowboy of the Southwest early learned that goatskin left with the hair on would turn the cactus thorns better than any other material.

Later, the chaps became a sort of affectation on the part of new men on the range; but the old-time cowboy wore them for use, not as a uniform. In hot weather he laid them off.


In the times when some men needed guns and all men carried them, no pistol of less than 44-caliber was tolerated on the range, the solid framed 45-caliber being the one almost universally used.

The barrel was eight inches long, and it shot a rifle cartridge of forty grains of powder and a blunt-ended bullet that made a terrible missile.

This weapon depended from a belt worn loose resting upon the left hip and hanging low down on the right hip so that none of the weight came upon the abdomen.

This was typical, for the cowboy was neither fancy gunman nor army officer.

The latter carries the revolver on the left, the butt pointing forward.

An essential part of the cow-puncher's outfit was his "rope."

This was carried in a close coil at the side of the saddle-horn, fastened by one of the many thongs scattered over the saddle.

In the Spanish country it was called reata and even today is sometimes seen in the Southwest made of rawhide. In the South it was called a lariat.

The modern rope is a well-made three-quarter-inch hemp rope about thirty feet in length, with a leather or rawhide eye.

The cowboy's quirt was a short heavy whip, the stock being of wood or iron covered with braided leather and carrying a lash made of two or three heavy loose thongs.

The spur in the old days had a very large rowel with blunt teeth an inch long.

It was often ornamented with little bells or oblongs of metal, the tinkling of which appealed to the childlike nature of the Plains rider. Their use was to lock the rowel.

His bridle -- for, since the cowboy and his mount are inseparable, we may as well speak of his horse's dress also -- was noticeable for its tremendously heavy and cruel curbed bit, known as the "Spanish bit."

But in the ordinary riding and even in the exciting work of the old round-up and in "cutting out," the cowboy used the bit very little, nor exerted any pressure on the reins.

He laid the reins against the neck of the pony opposite to the direction in which he wished it to go, merely turning his hand in the direction and inclining his body in the same way.

He rode with the pressure of the knee and the inclination of the body and the light side-shifting of both reins.

The saddle was the most important part of the outfit.

It was a curious thing, this saddle developed by the cattle trade, and the world has no other like it.

Its great weight -- from thirty to forty pounds -- was readily excusable when one remembers that it was not only seat but workbench for the cowman.

A light saddle would be torn to pieces at the first rush of a maddened steer, but the sturdy frame of a cow-saddle would throw the heaviest bull on the range.

The high cantle would give a firmness to the cowboy's seat when he snubbed a steer with a sternness sufficient to send it rolling heels over head.

The high pommel, or "horn," steel-forged and covered with cross braids of leather, served as anchor post for this same steer, a turn of the rope about it accomplishing that purpose at once.

The saddle-tree forked low down over the pony's back so that the saddle sat firmly and could not readily be pulled off.

The great broad cinches bound the saddle fast till horse and saddle were practically one fabric.

The strong wooden house of the old heavy stirrup protected the foot from being crushed by the impact of the herd.

The form of the cow-saddle has changed but little, although today one sees a shorter seat and smaller horn, a "swell front" or roll, and a stirrup of open "ox-bow" pattern.

The round-up was the harvest of the range.

The time of the calf round-up was in the spring after the grass had become good and after the calves had grown large enough for the branding.

The State Cattle Association divided the entire State range into a number of round-up districts.

Under an elected round-up captain were all the bosses in charge of the different ranch outfits sent by men having cattle in the round-up.

Let us briefly draw a picture of this scene as it was.

Each cowboy would have eight or ten horses for his own use, for he had now before him the hardest riding of the year.

When the cow-puncher went into the herd to cut out calves he mounted a fresh horse, and every few hours he again changed horses, for there was no horse which could long endure the fatigue of the rapid and intense work of cutting.

Before the rider stretched a sea of interwoven horns, waving and whirling as the densely packed ranks of cattle closed in or swayed apart.

It was no prospect for a weakling, but into it went the cow-puncher on his determined little horse, heeding not the plunging, crushing, and thrusting of the excited cattle.

Down under the bulks of the herd, half hid in the whirl of dust, he would spy a little curly calf running, dodging, and twisting, always at the heels of its mother; and he would dart in after, following the two through the thick of surging and plunging beasts.

The sharp-eyed pony would see almost as soon as his rider which cow was wanted and he needed small guidance from that time on.

He would follow hard at her heels, edging her constantly toward the flank of the herd, at times nipping her hide as a reminder of his own superiority.

In spite of herself the cow would gradually turn out toward the edge, and at last would be swept clear of the crush, the calf following close behind her.

There was a whirl of the rope and the calf was laid by the heels and dragged to the fire where the branding irons were heated and ready.

Meanwhile other cow-punchers are rushing calves to the branding.

The hubbub and turmoil increase.  Taut ropes cross the ground in many directions. The cutting ponies pant and sweat, rear and plunge.

The garb of the cowboy is now one of white alkali which hangs gray in his eyebrows and moustache.

Steers bellow as they surge to and fro. Cows charge on their persecutors. Fleet yearlings break and run for the open, pursued by men who care not how or where they ride.


We have spoken in terms of the past. There is no calf round-up of the open range today.

The last of the roundups was held in Routt County, Colorado , several years ago, so far as the writer knows, and it had only to do with shifting cattle from the summer to the winter range.

After the calf round-up came the beef round-up, the cowman's final harvest.

This began in July or August.

Only the mature or fatted animals were cut out from the herd.

This "beef cut" was held apart and driven on ahead from place to place as the round-up progressed.

It was then driven in by easy stages to the shipping point on the railroad, whence the long trainloads of cattle went to the great markets.

In the heyday of the cowboy it was natural that his chief amusements should be those of the outdoor air and those more or less in line with his employment.

He was accustomed to the sight of big game, and so had the edge of his appetite for its pursuit worn off.

Yet he was a hunter, just as every Western man was a hunter in the times of the Western game.

His weapons were the rifle, revolver, and rope; the latter two were always with him. With the rope at times he captured the coyote, and under special conditions he has taken deer and even antelope in this way, though this was of course most unusual and only possible under chance conditions of ground and cover.

Elk have been roped by cowboys many times, and it is known that even the mountain sheep has been so taken, almost incredible as that may seem.

The young buffalo were easy prey for the cowboy and these he often roped and made captive.

In fact the beginnings of all the herds of buffalo now in captivity in this country were the calves roped and secured by cowboys; and these few scattered individuals of a grand race of animals remain as melancholy reminders alike of a national shiftlessness and an individual skill and daring.

The grizzly was at times seen by the cowboys on the range, and if it chanced that several cowboys were together it was not unusual to give him chase.

They did not always rope him, for it was rarely that the nature of the country made this possible.

Sometimes they roped him and wished they could let him go, for a grizzly bear is uncommonly active and straightforward in his habits at close quarters.

The extreme difficulty of such a combat, however, gave it its chief fascination for the cowboy.

Of course, no one horse could hold the bear after it was roped, but, as one after another came up, the bear was caught by neck and foot and body, until at last he was tangled and tripped and hauled about till he was helpless, strangled, and nearly dead.

It is said that cowboys have so brought into camp a grizzly bear, forcing him to half walk and half slide at the end of the ropes.

No feat better than this could show the courage of the plainsman and of the horse which he so perfectly controlled.

Of such wild and dangerous exploits were the cowboy's amusements on the range.

It may be imagined what were his amusements when he visited the "settlements."

The cow-punchers, reared in the free life of the open air, under circumstances of the utmost freedom of individual action, perhaps came off the drive or round-up after weeks or months of unusual restraint or hardship, and felt that the time had arrived for them to "celebrate."

Merely great rude children, as wild and untamed and untaught as the herds they led, they regarded their first look at the "settlements" of the railroads as a glimpse of a wider world.

They pursued to the uttermost such avenues of new experience as lay before them, almost without exception avenues of vice.

It is strange that the records of those days should be chosen by the public to be held as the measure of the American cowboy.

Those days were brief, and they are long since gone.

The American cowboy atoned for them by a quarter of a century of faithful labor.

The amusements of the cowboy were like the features of his daily surroundings and occupation -- they were intense, large, Homeric.

Yet, judged at his work, no higher type of employee ever existed, nor one more dependable.

He was the soul of honor in all the ways of his calling.

The very blue of the sky, bending evenly over all men alike, seemed to symbolize his instinct for justice.

Faithfulness and manliness were his chief traits; his standard -- to be a "square man."

Not all the open range will ever be farmed, but very much that was long thought to be irreclaimable has gone under irrigation or is being more or less successfully "dry farmed."

The man who brought water upon the arid lands of the West changed the entire complexion of a vast country and with it the industries of that country.

Acres redeemed from the desert and added to the realm of the American farmer were taken from the realm of the American cowboy.

The West has changed. The curtain has dropped between us and its wild and stirring scenes.

The old days are gone. The house dog sits on the hill where yesterday the coyote sang.

There are fenced fields and in them stand sleek round beasts, deep in crops such as their ancestors never saw.

In a little town nearby is the hurry and bustle of modern life.

This town is far out upon what was called the frontier, long after the frontier has really gone.

Guarding its ghost here stood a little army post, once one of the pillars, now one of the monuments of the West.

Out from the tiny settlement in the dusk of evening, always facing toward where the sun is sinking, might be seen riding, not so long ago, a figure we should know.

He would thread the little lane among the fences, following the guidance of hands other than his own, a thing he would once have scorned to do.

He would ride as lightly and as easily as ever, sitting erect and jaunty in the saddle, his reins held high and loose in the hand whose fingers turn up gracefully, his whole body free yet firm in the saddle with the seat of the perfect horseman.

At the boom of the cannon, when the flag dropped fluttering down to sleep, he would rise in his stirrups and wave his hat to the flag. Then, toward the edge, out into the evening, he would ride on.

The dust of his riding would mingle with the dusk of night. We could not see which was the one or the other.

We could only hear the hoof beats passing, boldly and steadily still, but growing fainter, fainter, and more faint.

-- end of article.

Editor's Note:

Excerpted from the book The Passing of the Frontier, A Chronicle of the Old West, by Emerson Hough, Yale University Press, 1918, (now in the public domain).

Emerson Hough was an author and journalist who wrote factional accounts and historical novels of life in the American West.

Hough was born in Newton, Iowa, on June 28, 1857.

He was in Newton High School's first graduating class of three in 1875. He graduated from the University of Iowa with a bachelor's degree in philosophy in 1880 and later studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1882.

His first article, "Far From The Madding Crowd," was published in Forest and Stream in 1882.

He moved to White Oaks, New Mexico, practiced law there, and wrote for the White Oaks newspaper Golden Era for a year and a half, returning to Iowa when his mother was ill.

He later wrote a novel, Story of the Outlaw, a study of the western desperado, which included profiles of Billy the Kid and Pat Garrett. Hough moved to New Mexico after Garrett shot Billy the Kid, and he became a friend of Garrett.

He wrote for various newspapers in Des Moines, Iowa, Sandusky, Ohio, Chicago, Illinois, St. Louis, Missouri, and Wichita, Kansas.

He married Charlotte Chesebro of Chicago in 1897 and made that city his home.

In 1889 he got a position as western editor of Forest and Stream, editing the "Chicago and the West" column.

He was hired by George Bird Grinnell, the owner of Field and Stream, who founded the Audubon Society in 1886 which, along with Theodore Roosevelt's Boone and Crockett Club, was a leader in the conservation movement.

His works helped establish the Western as a popular genre in literature and motion pictures.

For years, Hough wrote the feature "Out-of-Doors" for the Saturday Evening Post and contributed to other major magazines.

Hough became known as a avid outdoorsman and was dedicated to conserving Western wildlife.

After spending time in Yellowstone in 1893 and seeing herds of buffalo decimated, Hough wrote several articles influencing Congress to take action.

In 1897, Hough secured the reputation of being a Western author with the publication of The Story of the Cowboy.

Hough would eventually become the author of more than twenty-one works focused on frontier life and the American west.

Hough served as a captain in the Army Intelligence Division during World War I, and became engaged in regular correspondence with President Roosevelt -- a fellow conservationist and outdoorsman.

He died in Evanston, Illinois, on April 30, 1923, a week after seeing the Chicago premiere of the movie The Covered Wagon, based on his 1922 book.


The Covered Wagon was his biggest best-selling novel since his book Mississippi Bubble in 1902.

We all owe a great debt to writers like Emerson Hugh who saved the facts and flavor of Old West in words -- for us who appreciate it almost 100 years later.

Tom Correa

 The Range Rider by W. Herbert Dunton, 1913

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